Release commit for 5.9010
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / 05_Authentication.pod
2857be0d 1=head1 NAME
d442cc9f 2
3ab6187c 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
d442cc9f 5=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 7This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 8
9L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
11=over 4
13=item 1
3ab6187c 15L<Introduction|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>
d442cc9f 16
17=item 2
3ab6187c 19L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::02_CatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 20
21=item 3
3ab6187c 23L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 24
25=item 4
3ab6187c 27L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 28
29=item 5
3ab6187c 31B<05_Authentication>
d442cc9f 32
33=item 6
3ab6187c 35L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>
d442cc9f 36
37=item 7
3ab6187c 39L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::07_Debugging>
d442cc9f 40
41=item 8
3ab6187c 43L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::08_Testing>
d442cc9f 44
45=item 9
3ab6187c 47L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::09_AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 48
3533daff 49=item 10
d442cc9f 50
3ab6187c 51L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::10_Appendices>
d442cc9f 52
3533daff 53=back
2d0526d1 54
2d0526d1 55
d442cc9f 56=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 58Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
59focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
e18d15c9 60L<Chapter 6|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>).
d442cc9f 61
e18d15c9 62This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1)
63basic, cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
d442cc9f 64
477a6d5b 65Source code for the tutorial in included in the F</home/catalyst/Final> directory
b1b6582a 66of the Tutorial Virtual machine (one subdirectory per chapter). There
67are also instructions for downloading the code in
2217b252 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
72This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
76=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
78First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
79add the role information here although it will not be used until the
e18d15c9 80authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by
f4e9de4a 81opening F<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
d442cc9f 82
83 --
861a0cdd 84 -- Add users and role tables, along with a many-to-many join table
d442cc9f 85 --
3c700304 86 PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON;
861a0cdd 87 CREATE TABLE users (
02bb2b5a 88 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
89 username TEXT,
90 password TEXT,
91 email_address TEXT,
92 first_name TEXT,
93 last_name TEXT,
94 active INTEGER
d442cc9f 95 );
3b1fa91b 96 CREATE TABLE role (
02bb2b5a 97 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
98 role TEXT
d442cc9f 99 );
3b1fa91b 100 CREATE TABLE user_role (
103 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
d442cc9f 104 );
105 --
106 -- Load up some initial test data
107 --
861a0cdd 108 INSERT INTO users VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', '', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
109 INSERT INTO users VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', '', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
110 INSERT INTO users VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', '', 'No', 'Go', 0);
3b1fa91b 111 INSERT INTO role VALUES (1, 'user');
112 INSERT INTO role VALUES (2, 'admin');
113 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 1);
114 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 2);
115 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (2, 1);
116 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (3, 1);
d442cc9f 117
f4e9de4a 118Then load this into the F<myapp.db> database with the following command:
d442cc9f 119
120 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
444d6b27 122
d442cc9f 123=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 125Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
e18d15c9 126the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the
127C<create=static> option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work
128for us:
d442cc9f 129
acbd7bdd 130 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
b6e53c1c 131 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
b66dd084 132 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
477a6d5b 133 exists "/home/catalyst/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
134 exists "/home/catalyst/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
135 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /home/catalyst/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
1390ef0e 136 Schema dump completed.
477a6d5b 137 exists "/home/catalyst/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/"
1390ef0e 138 $
acbd7bdd 139 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3b1fa91b 140
d442cc9f 141
3c700304 142Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific Result Source
f4e9de4a 143files to the F<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 144importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
d8e9b469 145files, those changes would have only been written above the
146C<# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 147enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 148
e18d15c9 149Speaking of "hand-edited enhancements," we should now add the
861a0cdd 150C<many_to_many> relationship information to the User Result Source file.
d8e9b469 151As with the Book, BookAuthor, and Author files in
152L<Chapter 3|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>,
e18d15c9 153L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader> has automatically created the C<has_many>
154and C<belongs_to> relationships for the new User, UserRole, and Role
155tables. However, as a convenience for mapping Users to their assigned
156roles (see L<Chapter 6|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>),
157we will also manually add a C<many_to_many> relationship. Edit
f4e9de4a 158F<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> add the following information between
861a0cdd 159the C<# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing
d442cc9f 161
3533daff 162 # many_to_many():
163 # args:
164 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 165 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
166 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 167 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
bd8f28e0 168 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'user_roles', 'role');
d442cc9f 169
861a0cdd 170The code for this update is obviously very similar to the edits we made
d8e9b469 171to the C<Book> and C<Author> classes created in
172L<Chapter 3|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics> with one
861a0cdd 173exception: we only defined the C<many_to_many> relationship in one
174direction. Whereas we felt that we would want to map Authors to Books
175B<AND> Books to Authors, here we are only adding the convenience
176C<many_to_many> in the Users to Roles direction.
3533daff 177
636ba9f7 178Note that we do not need to make any change to the
f4e9de4a 179F<lib/MyApp/> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all of
d8e9b469 180the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds below the
f4e9de4a 181F<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our new
e18d15c9 182table information.
d442cc9f 183
3c700304 185=head2 Sanity-Check of the Development Server Reload
d442cc9f 186
861a0cdd 187We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want to
188do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Assuming that you
f9ce2976 189are following along and using the "-r" option on F<>,
861a0cdd 190then the development server should automatically reload (if not, press
191C<Ctrl-C> to break out of the server if it's running and then enter
f9ce2976 192F<script/> to start it). Look for the three new model
861a0cdd 193objects in the startup debug output:
d442cc9f 194
195 ...
f9ce2976 196 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
d442cc9f 197 | Class | Type |
198 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
199 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
200 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 201 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
202 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
3b1fa91b 203 | MyApp::Model::DB::Book | class |
204 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthor | class |
205 | MyApp::Model::DB::Role | class |
206 | MyApp::Model::DB::User | class |
207 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRole | class |
1edbdee6 208 | MyApp::View::HTML | instance |
d442cc9f 209 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
210 ...
e18d15c9 212Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded" by
213Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 214
216=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
f4e9de4a 218Edit F<lib/> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 219C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 220
acbd7bdd 221 # Load plugins
2a6eb5f9 222 use Catalyst qw/
3c700304 223 -Debug
224 ConfigLoader
225 Static::Simple
7ce05098 226
3c700304 227 StackTrace
7ce05098 228
3c700304 229 Authentication
7ce05098 230
3c700304 231 Session
95455c74 232 Session::Store::File
3c700304 233 Session::State::Cookie
234 /;
d442cc9f 235
d8e9b469 236B<Note:> As discussed in
237L<Chapter 3|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>,
238different versions of C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods
239to load the plugins, but we are going to use the current Catalyst 5.9
240practice of putting them on the C<use Catalyst> line.
94d8da41 241
905a3a26 242The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
243C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 245
905a3a26 246Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
d8e9b469 247is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
248L<Authentication|Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication> plugin. You
249B<do not need> to specify a particular
250L<Authentication::Store|Catalyst::Authentication::Store> or
251C<Authentication::Credential> you want to use. Instead, indicate the
252Store and Credential you want to use in your application configuration
253(see below).
6d0971ad 254
e18d15c9 255Make sure you include the additional plugins as new dependencies in the
256Makefile.PL file something like this:
3b1fa91b 257
e12f8011 258 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication';
259 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session';
95455c74 260 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File';
e12f8011 261 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie';
3b1fa91b 262
905a3a26 263Note that there are several options for
3c700304 264L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store>.
e18d15c9 265L<Session::Store::Memcached|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::Memcached>
266is generally a good choice if you are on Unix. If you are running on
267Windows L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File>
268is fine. Consult L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and
269its subclasses for additional information and options (for example to
d8e9b469 270use a database-backed session store).
d442cc9f 271
273=head2 Configure Authentication
3b1fa91b 275There are a variety of ways to provide configuration information to
e18d15c9 276L<Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication>. Here we will use
277L<Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB> because it automatically
d8e9b469 278sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. (Note: the C<SimpleDB> here
279has nothing to do with the SimpleDB offered in Amazon's web services
280offerings -- here we are only talking about a "simple" way to use your
f4e9de4a 281DB as an authentication backend.) Open F<lib/> and place the
429d1caf 282following text above the call to C<< __PACKAGE__->setup(); >>:
efdaddec 283
284 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
19a5b486 285 __PACKAGE__->config(
286 'Plugin::Authentication' => {
efdaddec 287 default => {
288 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 289 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 290 password_type => 'clear',
291 },
19a5b486 292 },
293 );
efdaddec 294
f4e9de4a 295We could have placed this configuration in F<myapp.conf>, but placing it
296in F<lib/> is probably a better place since it's not likely
861a0cdd 297something that users of your application will want to change during
e18d15c9 298deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave C<class> and C<user_model>
f4e9de4a 299defined in F<lib/> as we show above, but place C<password_type>
300in F<myapp.conf> to allow the type of password to be easily modified
e18d15c9 301during deployment). We will stick with putting all of the
f4e9de4a 302authentication-related configuration in F<lib/> for the
303tutorial, but if you wish to use F<myapp.conf>, just convert to the
e18d15c9 304following code:
c3cf3bc3 305
306 <Plugin::Authentication>
c3cf3bc3 307 <default>
43707053 308 password_type clear
3b1fa91b 309 user_model DB::User
c3cf3bc3 310 class SimpleDB
311 </default>
312 </Plugin::Authentication>
861a0cdd 314B<TIP:> Here is a short script that will dump the contents of
08c0026d 315C<< MyApp->config >> to L<Config::General> format in F<myapp.conf>:
c3cf3bc3 316
861a0cdd 317 $ CATALYST_DEBUG=0 perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
c3cf3bc3 318 Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'
d442cc9f 319
3c700304 320B<HOWEVER>, if you try out the command above, be sure to delete the
321"myapp.conf" command. Otherwise, you will wind up with duplicate
d8e9b469 324B<NOTE:> Because we are using
89a65964 325L<SimpleDB|Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB> along with a
d8e9b469 326database layout that complies with its default assumptions: we don't
327need to specify the names of the columns where our username and password
328information is stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB"). That
329being said, SimpleDB lets you specify that type of information if you
330need to. Take a look at C<Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB>
c4fa597d 331for details.
1390ef0e 333
d442cc9f 334=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
fa59770d 336Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
d442cc9f 337
fa59770d 338 $ script/ controller Login
339 $ script/ controller Logout
d442cc9f 340
fa59770d 341You could easily use a single controller here. For example, you could
342have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
636ba9f7 343Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 344matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 345
f4e9de4a 346Then open F<lib/MyApp/Controller/>, and update the definition of
d8e9b469 347C<sub index> to match:
d442cc9f 348
fa59770d 349 =head2 index
7ce05098 350
d442cc9f 351 Login logic
7ce05098 352
d442cc9f 353 =cut
7ce05098 354
fa59770d 355 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 356 my ($self, $c) = @_;
7ce05098 357
d442cc9f 358 # Get the username and password from form
ab0bd0bb 359 my $username = $c->request->params->{username};
360 my $password = $c->request->params->{password};
7ce05098 361
d442cc9f 362 # If the username and password values were found in form
ab0bd0bb 363 if ($username && $password) {
d442cc9f 364 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 365 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 366 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 367 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 368 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
369 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
fa59770d 370 return;
d442cc9f 371 } else {
fa59770d 372 # Set an error message
0ed3df53 373 $c->stash(error_msg => "Bad username or password.");
d442cc9f 374 }
ab0bd0bb 375 } else {
fa59770d 376 # Set an error message
b6ff4050 377 $c->stash(error_msg => "Empty username or password.")
378 unless ($c->user_exists);
d442cc9f 379 }
7ce05098 380
d442cc9f 381 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
0ed3df53 382 $c->stash(template => 'login.tt2');
d442cc9f 383 }
385This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 386login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
387redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
388will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
e18d15c9 389C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the user
390will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 391
636ba9f7 392Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
e18d15c9 393however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons, and
394partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
636ba9f7 395C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 396found page for the application.
ae492862 397
fa59770d 398Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}>" here to
399specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
e18d15c9 400actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the controller
401where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports arguments that allow
402relative and absolute paths to be defined, here we use an empty C<Path>
403definition to match on just the name of the controller itself. The
404method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make the match even more
405specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier -- this forces the match
406on I<only> C</login>, not C</login/somethingelse>.
d442cc9f 407
905a3a26 408Next, update the corresponding method in
f4e9de4a 409F<lib/MyApp/Controller/> to match:
d442cc9f 410
411 =head2 index
7ce05098 412
d442cc9f 413 Logout logic
7ce05098 414
d442cc9f 415 =cut
7ce05098 416
ae492862 417 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 418 my ($self, $c) = @_;
7ce05098 419
d442cc9f 420 # Clear the user's state
421 $c->logout;
7ce05098 422
d442cc9f 423 # Send the user to the starting point
424 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
425 }
d442cc9f 427
428=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
f4e9de4a 430Create a login form by opening F<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
d442cc9f 431
432 [% META title = 'Login' %]
7ce05098 433
d442cc9f 434 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 435 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
02bb2b5a 436 <table>
437 <tr>
438 <td>Username:</td>
439 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
440 </tr>
441 <tr>
442 <td>Password:</td>
443 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
444 </tr>
445 <tr>
446 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
447 </tr>
448 </table>
d442cc9f 449 </form>
452=head2 Add Valid User Check
454We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
455mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
456passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
861a0cdd 457This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method in
f4e9de4a 458F<lib/MyApp/Controller/>.
d442cc9f 459
f4e9de4a 460Edit the existing F<lib/MyApp/Controller/> class file and insert
d442cc9f 461the following method:
463 =head2 auto
7ce05098 464
d442cc9f 465 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
7ce05098 466
d442cc9f 467 =cut
7ce05098 468
d442cc9f 469 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 470 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 471 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
ddfbd850 472 sub auto :Private {
d442cc9f 473 my ($self, $c) = @_;
7ce05098 474
d442cc9f 475 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 476 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 477 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
478 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 479 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 480 # added above.
481 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
482 return 1;
483 }
7ce05098 484
d442cc9f 485 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
486 if (!$c->user_exists) {
487 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
488 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
489 # Redirect the user to the login page
490 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
491 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
492 return 0;
493 }
7ce05098 494
d442cc9f 495 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
496 return 1;
497 }
636ba9f7 499As discussed in
3ab6187c 500L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
636ba9f7 501every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
e18d15c9 502most specific controller will be called. By placing the authentication
503enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
f4e9de4a 504F<lib/MyApp/Controller/> (or F<lib/>), it will be called
e18d15c9 505for I<every> request that is received by the entire application.
d442cc9f 506
508=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
510Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
511changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
f4e9de4a 512this, open F<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
d442cc9f 513lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 515 ...
d442cc9f 516 <p>
517 [%
02bb2b5a 518 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
519 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
d442cc9f 520 %]
8a7c5151 521 [% IF c.user_exists %]
522 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
523 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 524 [% ELSE %]
525 You need to log in to use this application.
526 [% END %]
527 [%#
02bb2b5a 528 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
529 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
530 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
531 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 533 %]
3533daff 534 </p>
d442cc9f 535
536Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
537"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
538page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
539authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
540use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
543=head2 Try Out Authentication
861a0cdd 545The development server should have reloaded each time we edited one of
3e1a2240 546the Controllers in the previous section. Now try going to
861a0cdd 547L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should be redirected to the
548login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload if necessary (the "You
549are already logged in" message should I<not> appear -- if it does, click
550the C<logout> button and try again). Note the C<***Root::auto User not
551found...> debug message in the development server output. Enter username
552C<test01> and password C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book
553List page.
d442cc9f 554
636ba9f7 555B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
d8e9b469 556Internet Explorer (or potentially other browsers), be sure to check the
557system clocks on both your server and client machines. Internet
558Explorer is very picky about timestamps for cookies. You can use the
559C<ntpq -p> command on the Tutorial Virtual Machine to check time sync
560and/or use the following command to force a sync:
25ed8f40 561
acbd7bdd 562 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 563
d8e9b469 564Or, depending on your firewall configuration, try it with "-u":
acbd7bdd 565
566 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 568Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 569UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
570Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
571box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 572
f4e9de4a 573Open F<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 574bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 575
aa7ff325 576 ...
d442cc9f 577 <p>
02bb2b5a 578 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
579 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 580 </p>
905a3a26 582Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
583at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
e18d15c9 584files without a development server reload). Click the first link to
585return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 586already logged in" message.
588Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
589You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
590need to log in to use this application."
861a0cdd 595In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
e18d15c9 596from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a random
d8e9b469 597"salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack, even with
598dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 599
600B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
601tutorial will function normally.
e18d15c9 603Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the
604browser still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application.
605We are just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the
606database by using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about
607cleartext passwords between the browser and your application, consider
d8e9b469 608using SSL/TLS, made easy with modules such as
080bb620 609L<Catalyst::Plugin::RequireSSL> and L<Catalyst::ActionRole::RequireSSL>.
d442cc9f 610
436f45da 612=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::PassphraseColumn
d442cc9f 613
d8e9b469 614Let's re-run the model helper to have it include
e18d15c9 615L<DBIx::Class::PassphraseColumn> in all of the Result Classes it
616generates for us. Simply use the same command we saw in Chapters 3 and
6174, but add C<,PassphraseColumn> to the C<components> argument:
d442cc9f 618
efdaddec 619 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
b6e53c1c 620 create=static components=TimeStamp,PassphraseColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
b66dd084 621 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
d442cc9f 622
861a0cdd 623If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
e18d15c9 624includes PassphraseColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look
f4e9de4a 625at F<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> since that's the main class where
e18d15c9 626we want to use hashed and salted passwords:
efdaddec 627
436f45da 628 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "PassphraseColumn");
efdaddec 629
436f45da 631=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use PassphraseColumn
efdaddec 632
f4e9de4a 633Open the file F<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> and enter the following
efdaddec 634text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
635the closing "1;":
436f45da 637 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 20-byte salt
638 # with RFC 2307 encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
efdaddec 639 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
640 'password' => {
436f45da 641 passphrase => 'rfc2307',
642 passphrase_class => 'SaltedDigest',
643 passphrase_args => {
644 algorithm => 'SHA-1',
682c50f1 645 salt_random => 20,
436f45da 646 },
647 passphrase_check_method => 'check_password',
efdaddec 648 },
649 );
e18d15c9 651This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password
652fields at the top of the Result Class file to now use PassphraseColumn
653logic, storing passwords in RFC 2307 format (C<passphrase> is set to
654C<rfc2307>). C<passphrase_class> can be set to the name of any
655C<Authen::Passphrase::*> class, such as C<SaltedDigest> to use
656L<Authen::Passphrase::SaltedDigest>, or C<BlowfishCrypt> to use
657L<Authen::Passphrase::BlowfishCrypt>. C<passphrase_args> is then used
658to customize the passphrase class you selected. Here we specified the
659digest algorithm to use as C<SHA-1> and the size of the salt to use, but
660we could have also specified any other option the selected passphrase
661class supports.
efdaddec 663
664=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
e18d15c9 666Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted
667passwords into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the
f4e9de4a 668file F<> in your editor and enter the following
e18d15c9 669text:
efdaddec 670
671 #!/usr/bin/perl
7ce05098 672
efdaddec 673 use strict;
674 use warnings;
7ce05098 675
efdaddec 676 use MyApp::Schema;
7ce05098 677
efdaddec 678 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
7ce05098 679
3b1fa91b 680 my @users = $schema->resultset('User')->all;
7ce05098 681
efdaddec 682 foreach my $user (@users) {
683 $user->password('mypass');
684 $user->update;
685 }
08c0026d 687PassphraseColumn lets us simply call C<< $user->check_password($password) >>
861a0cdd 688to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
08c0026d 689above, call C<< $user->update($new_password) >> to update the hashed
efdaddec 690password stored for this user.
692Then run the following command:
2a6eb5f9 694 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
efdaddec 695
bd8f28e0 696We had to use the C<-Ilib> argument to tell Perl to look under the
f4e9de4a 697F<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
efdaddec 698
2a6eb5f9 699The DBIC_TRACE output should show that the update worked:
701 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
861a0cdd 702 SELECT, me.username, me.password, me.email_address,
703 me.first_name, me.last_name, FROM users me:
704 UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
436f45da 705 '{SSHA}esgz64CpHMo8pMfgIIszP13ft23z/zio04aCwNdm0wc6MDeloMUH4g==', '1'
861a0cdd 706 UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
436f45da 707 '{SSHA}FpGhpCJus+Ea9ne4ww8404HH+hJKW/fW+bAv1v6FuRUy2G7I2aoTRQ==', '2'
861a0cdd 708 UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
436f45da 709 '{SSHA}ZyGlpiHls8qFBSbHr3r5t/iqcZE602XLMbkSVRRNl6rF8imv1abQVg==', '3'
2a6eb5f9 710
711But we can further confirm our actions by dumping the users table:
efdaddec 712
861a0cdd 713 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from users"
436f45da 714 1|test01|{SSHA}esgz64CpHMo8pMfgIIszP13ft23z/zio04aCwNdm0wc6MDeloMUH4g==||Joe|Blow|1
715 2|test02|{SSHA}FpGhpCJus+Ea9ne4ww8404HH+hJKW/fW+bAv1v6FuRUy2G7I2aoTRQ==||Jane|Doe|1
716 3|test03|{SSHA}ZyGlpiHls8qFBSbHr3r5t/iqcZE602XLMbkSVRRNl6rF8imv1abQVg==||No|Go|0
efdaddec 717
e18d15c9 718As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the database
719(not only are the hashes stored, but every hash is different even though
720the passwords are the same because of the added "salt" value). Also
721note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class model outside of
722your web application -- a very useful feature in many situations.
efdaddec 723
725=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
f4e9de4a 727Edit F<lib/> and update the config() section for
d8e9b469 728C<Plugin::Authentication> it to match the following text (the only
e18d15c9 729change is to the C<password_type> field):
efdaddec 730
731 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
19a5b486 732 __PACKAGE__->config(
733 'Plugin::Authentication' => {
efdaddec 734 default => {
735 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 736 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 737 password_type => 'self_check',
738 },
19a5b486 739 },
740 );
efdaddec 741
861a0cdd 742The use of C<self_check> will cause
9c5abba4 743Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIx::Class to call the
efdaddec 744C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 745
746=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
861a0cdd 748The development server should restart as soon as your save the
f4e9de4a 749F<lib/> file in the previous section. You should now be able to
861a0cdd 750go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and login as before. When
751done, click the "logout" link on the login page (or point your browser
752at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 753
d442cc9f 754
861a0cdd 757As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
758you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
e18d15c9 759will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it is
760cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
861a0cdd 761authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
762those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
e18d15c9 763redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the
764L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD> chapter of the
765tutorial to take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 766
f4e9de4a 767First, open F<lib/MyApp/Controller/> and modify C<sub delete> to
e18d15c9 768match the following (everything after the model search line of code has
d442cc9f 770
905a3a26 771 =head2 delete
7ce05098 772
d442cc9f 773 Delete a book
7ce05098 774
d442cc9f 775 =cut
7ce05098 776
fbbb9084 777 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
778 my ($self, $c) = @_;
7ce05098 779
fbbb9084 780 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
781 # with related 'book_authors' entries
782 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
7ce05098 783
d442cc9f 784 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
785 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
7ce05098 786
3533daff 787 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 788 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 789 }
f4e9de4a 791Next, open F<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 792flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 794 ...
d442cc9f 795 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 796 [%# Status and error messages %]
797 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
798 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
799 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
800 [% content %]
801 </div><!-- end content -->
802 ...
905a3a26 803
e18d15c9 804Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the rest
080bb620 805of the file intact -- the only change we made to replace "C<||
806c.request.params.status_msg>" with "C<c.flash.status_msg>" in the
429d1caf 807C<< <span class="message"> >> line.
d442cc9f 808
810=head2 Try Out Flash
3c700304 812Authenticate using the login screen and then point your browser to
636ba9f7 813L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
814several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
815"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 816"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 817
818B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
819I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
e18d15c9 820exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on the
821next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up" after
822that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
823L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional information.
d442cc9f 824
d8e9b469 825B<Note:> There is also a C<flash-to-stash> feature that will
826automatically load the contents the contents of flash into stash,
827allowing us to use the more typical C<c.flash.status_msg> in our TT
828template in lieu of the more verbose C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg>
829we used above. Consult L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
7ce05098 833=head2 Switch To Catalyst::Plugin::StatusMessages
d8e9b469 834
835Although the query parameter technique we used in
836L<Chapter 4|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD> and the C<flash>
837approach we used above will work in most cases, they both have their
838drawbacks. The query parameters can leave the status message on the
839screen longer than it should (for example, if the user hits refresh).
840And C<flash> can display the wrong message on the wrong screen (flash
841just shows the message on the next page for that user... if the user
842has multiple windows or tabs open, then the wrong one can get the
843status message).
845L<Catalyst::Plugin::StatusMessage> is designed to address these
846shortcomings. It stores the messages in the user's session (so they are
847available across multiple requests), but ties each status message to a
848random token. By passing this token across the redirect, we are no
849longer relying on a potentially ambiguous "next request" like we do with
850flash. And, because the message is deleted the first time it's
851displayed, the user can hit refresh and still only see the message a
852single time (even though the URL may continue to reference the token,
853it's only displayed the first time). The use of C<StatusMessage>
854or a similar mechanism is recommended for all Catalyst applications.
f4e9de4a 856To enable C<StatusMessage>, first edit F<lib/> and add
d8e9b469 857C<StatusMessage> to the list of plugins:
1390ef0e 858
d8e9b469 859 use Catalyst qw/
860 -Debug
861 ConfigLoader
862 Static::Simple
7ce05098 863
3e29729b 864 StackTrace
7ce05098 865
d8e9b469 866 Authentication
7ce05098 867
d8e9b469 868 Session
869 Session::Store::File
870 Session::State::Cookie
7ce05098 871
d8e9b469 872 StatusMessage
873 /;
3533daff 874
f4e9de4a 875Then edit F<lib/MyApp/Controller/> and modify the C<delete>
d8e9b469 876action to match the following:
3533daff 877
d8e9b469 878 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
879 my ($self, $c) = @_;
7ce05098 880
d8e9b469 881 # Saved the PK id for status_msg below
882 my $id = $c->stash->{object}->id;
7ce05098 883
d8e9b469 884 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
885 # with related 'book_authors' entries
886 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
7ce05098 887
d8e9b469 888 # Redirect the user back to the list page
889 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list'),
890 {mid => $c->set_status_msg("Deleted book $id")}));
891 }
893This uses the C<set_status_msg> that the plugin added to C<$c> to save
894the message under a random token. (If we wanted to save an error
895message, we could have used C<set_error_msg>.) Because
896C<set_status_msg> and C<set_error_msg> both return the random token, we
897can assign that value to the "C<mid>" query parameter via C<uri_for> as
898shown above.
900Next, we need to make sure that the list page will load display the
901message. The easiest way to do this is to take advantage of the chained
902dispatch we implemented in
903L<Chapter 4|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD>. Edit
f4e9de4a 904F<lib/MyApp/Controller/> again and update the C<base> action to
d8e9b469 905match:
907 sub base :Chained('/') :PathPart('books') :CaptureArgs(0) {
908 my ($self, $c) = @_;
7ce05098 909
d8e9b469 910 # Store the ResultSet in stash so it's available for other methods
911 $c->stash(resultset => $c->model('DB::Book'));
7ce05098 912
d8e9b469 913 # Print a message to the debug log
914 $c->log->debug('*** INSIDE BASE METHOD ***');
7ce05098 915
d8e9b469 916 # Load status messages
917 $c->load_status_msgs;
918 }
3533daff 919
d8e9b469 920That way, anything that chains off C<base> will automatically get any
921status or error messages loaded into the stash. Let's convert the
922C<list> action to take advantage of this. Modify the method signature
923for C<list> from:
3533daff 924
d8e9b469 925 sub list :Local {
3533daff 926
d8e9b469 927to:
3533daff 928
8f19d4dd 929 sub list :Chained('base') :PathPart('list') :Args(0) {
3533daff 930
d8e9b469 931Finally, let's clean up the status/error message code in our wrapper
f4e9de4a 932template. Edit F<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the "content" div
d8e9b469 933to match the following:
935 <div id="content">
936 [%# Status and error messages %]
937 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
938 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
939 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
940 [% content %]
941 </div><!-- end content -->
3533daff 942
861a0cdd 943Now go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete
d8e9b469 944another of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. You should
945get redirection from the C<delete> action back to the C<list> action,
946but with a "mid=########" message ID query parameter. The screen should
947say "Deleted book #" (where # is the PK id of the book you removed).
948However, if you hit refresh in your browser, the status message is no
949longer displayed (even though the URL does still contain the message ID
950token, it is ignored -- thereby keeping the state of our status/error
951messages in sync with the users actions).
3533daff 952
24acc5d7 953You can jump to the next chapter of the tutorial here:
d442cc9f 956=head1 AUTHOR
958Kennedy Clark, C<>
53243324 960Feel free to contact the author for any errors or suggestions, but the
961best way to report issues is via the CPAN RT Bug system at
bb0999d3 962L<>.
53243324 963
bb0999d3 964Copyright 2006-2011, Kennedy Clark, under the
ec3ef4ad 965Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike License Version 3.0
56a12748 966(L<>).