Lots of updates
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / 05_Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
3ab6187c 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 8This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
3ab6187c 16L<Introduction|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>
d442cc9f 17
18=item 2
3ab6187c 20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::02_CatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 21
22=item 3
3ab6187c 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3ab6187c 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3ab6187c 32B<05_Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3ab6187c 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3ab6187c 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::07_Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3ab6187c 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::08_Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3ab6187c 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::09_AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3ab6187c 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::10_Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
4b4d3884 61Chapter 6).
d442cc9f 62
4b4d3884 63This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
d442cc9f 64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
2217b252 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
fbbb9084 70
d442cc9f 71=head1 BASIC AUTHENTICATION
73This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
77=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
79First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
80add the role information here although it will not be used until the
4b4d3884 81authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by opening
d442cc9f 82C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
84 --
861a0cdd 85 -- Add users and role tables, along with a many-to-many join table
d442cc9f 86 --
3c700304 87 PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON;
861a0cdd 88 CREATE TABLE users (
d442cc9f 89 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
90 username TEXT,
91 password TEXT,
92 email_address TEXT,
93 first_name TEXT,
94 last_name TEXT,
95 active INTEGER
96 );
3b1fa91b 97 CREATE TABLE role (
d442cc9f 98 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
99 role TEXT
100 );
3b1fa91b 101 CREATE TABLE user_role (
d442cc9f 104 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
105 );
106 --
107 -- Load up some initial test data
108 --
861a0cdd 109 INSERT INTO users VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', 't01@na.com', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
110 INSERT INTO users VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', 't02@na.com', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
111 INSERT INTO users VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', 't03@na.com', 'No', 'Go', 0);
3b1fa91b 112 INSERT INTO role VALUES (1, 'user');
113 INSERT INTO role VALUES (2, 'admin');
114 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 1);
115 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 2);
116 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (2, 1);
117 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (3, 1);
d442cc9f 118
119Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
121 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
444d6b27 123
d442cc9f 124=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 126Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
127the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
128option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 129
acbd7bdd 130 $ script/myapp_create.pl model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
b66dd084 131 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
132 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
1390ef0e 133 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
134 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
135 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
136 Schema dump completed.
137 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/DB.pm"
138 $
acbd7bdd 139 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3b1fa91b 140 Author.pm BookAuthor.pm Book.pm Role.pm User.pm UserRole.pm
d442cc9f 141
3c700304 142Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific Result Source
acbd7bdd 143files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 144importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
145files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
191dee29 146MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 147enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 148
861a0cdd 149Speaking of "hand-editted enhancements," we should now add the
150C<many_to_many> relationship information to the User Result Source file.
151As with the Book, BookAuthor, and Author files in
152L<Chapter 3|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>,
2217b252 153L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader> has
861a0cdd 154automatically created the C<has_many> and C<belongs_to> relationships
155for the new User, UserRole, and Role tables. However, as a convenience
156for mapping Users to their assigned roles (see
157L<Chapter 6|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>), we will
158also manually add a C<many_to_many> relationship. Edit
159C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> add the following information between
160the C<# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing
d442cc9f 162
3533daff 163 # many_to_many():
164 # args:
165 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 166 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
167 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 168 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
046fbe4f 169 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'user_roles', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 170
861a0cdd 171The code for this update is obviously very similar to the edits we made
172to the C<Book> and C<Author> classes created in Chapter 3 with one
173exception: we only defined the C<many_to_many> relationship in one
174direction. Whereas we felt that we would want to map Authors to Books
175B<AND> Books to Authors, here we are only adding the convenience
176C<many_to_many> in the Users to Roles direction.
3533daff 177
636ba9f7 178Note that we do not need to make any change to the
179C<lib/MyApp/Schema.pm> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all
180of the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds in below the
181C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our
acbd7bdd 182new table information.
d442cc9f 183
3c700304 185=head2 Sanity-Check of the Development Server Reload
d442cc9f 186
861a0cdd 187We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want to
188do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Assuming that you
189are following along and using the "-r" option on C<myapp_server.pl>,
190then the development server should automatically reload (if not, press
191C<Ctrl-C> to break out of the server if it's running and then enter
192C<script/myapp_server.pl> to start it). Look for the three new model
193objects in the startup debug output:
d442cc9f 194
195 ...
196 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
197 | Class | Type |
198 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
199 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
200 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 201 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
202 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
3b1fa91b 203 | MyApp::Model::DB::Book | class |
204 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthor | class |
205 | MyApp::Model::DB::Role | class |
206 | MyApp::Model::DB::User | class |
207 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRole | class |
1edbdee6 208 | MyApp::View::HTML | instance |
d442cc9f 209 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
210 ...
acbd7bdd 212Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded"
3533daff 213by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 214
216=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 218Edit C<lib/MyApp.pm> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 219C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 220
acbd7bdd 221 # Load plugins
2a6eb5f9 222 use Catalyst qw/
3c700304 223 -Debug
224 ConfigLoader
225 Static::Simple
861a0cdd 226
3c700304 227 StackTrace
861a0cdd 228
3c700304 229 Authentication
861a0cdd 230
3c700304 231 Session
95455c74 232 Session::Store::File
3c700304 233 Session::State::Cookie
234 /;
d442cc9f 235
636ba9f7 236B<Note:> As discussed in MoreCatalystBasics, different versions of
444d6b27 237C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods to load the plugins,
238but we are going to use the current Catalyst 5.8X practice of putting
239them on the C<use Catalyst> line.
94d8da41 240
905a3a26 241The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
242C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 244
905a3a26 245Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
246is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
247C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
248Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
249indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 250configuration (see below).
3b1fa91b 252Make sure you include the additional plugins as new dependencies in
253the Makefile.PL file something like this:
e12f8011 255 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication';
256 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session';
95455c74 257 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File';
e12f8011 258 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie';
3b1fa91b 259
905a3a26 260Note that there are several options for
3c700304 261L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store>.
95455c74 262L<Session::Store::Memcached|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::Memcached> is
3c700304 263generally a good choice if you are on Unix. If you are running on
95455c74 264Windows
265L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File> is fine. Consult
905a3a26 266L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
3533daff 267for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
268backed session store).
d442cc9f 269
271=head2 Configure Authentication
3b1fa91b 273There are a variety of ways to provide configuration information to
2217b252 274L<Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication>.
861a0cdd 275Here we will use
2217b252 276L<Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB>
861a0cdd 277because it automatically sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. Open
efdaddec 278C<lib/MyApp.pm> and place the following text above the call to
281 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
19a5b486 282 __PACKAGE__->config(
283 'Plugin::Authentication' => {
efdaddec 284 default => {
285 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 286 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 287 password_type => 'clear',
288 },
19a5b486 289 },
290 );
efdaddec 291
861a0cdd 292We could have placed this configuration in C<myapp.conf>, but placing
293it in C<lib/MyApp.pm> is probably a better place since it's not likely
294something that users of your application will want to change during
295deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave C<class> and
296C<user_model> defined in C<lib/MyApp.pm> as we show above, but place
297C<password_type> in C<myapp.conf> to allow the type of password to be
298easily modified during deployment). We will stick with putting
299all of the authentication-related configuration in C<lib/MyApp.pm>
c3cf3bc3 300for the tutorial, but if you wish to use C<myapp.conf>, just convert
301to the following code:
303 <Plugin::Authentication>
c3cf3bc3 304 <default>
43707053 305 password_type clear
3b1fa91b 306 user_model DB::User
c3cf3bc3 307 class SimpleDB
308 </default>
309 </Plugin::Authentication>
861a0cdd 311B<TIP:> Here is a short script that will dump the contents of
2217b252 312C<MyApp->config> to L<Config::General> format in
c3cf3bc3 313C<myapp.conf>:
861a0cdd 315 $ CATALYST_DEBUG=0 perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
c3cf3bc3 316 Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'
d442cc9f 317
3c700304 318B<HOWEVER>, if you try out the command above, be sure to delete the
319"myapp.conf" command. Otherwise, you will wind up with duplicate
861a0cdd 322B<NOTE:> Because we are using SimpleDB along with a database layout
3c700304 323that complies with its default assumptions: we don't need to specify
c4fa597d 324the names of the columns where our username and password information
325is stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB"). That being said,
87236f03 326SimpleDB lets you specify that type of information if you need to.
861a0cdd 327Take a look at
c4fa597d 328C<Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB|Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB>
329for details.
1390ef0e 331
d442cc9f 332=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
fa59770d 334Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
d442cc9f 335
fa59770d 336 $ script/myapp_create.pl controller Login
337 $ script/myapp_create.pl controller Logout
d442cc9f 338
fa59770d 339You could easily use a single controller here. For example, you could
340have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
636ba9f7 341Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 342matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 343
fa59770d 344Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Login.pm>, locate the
636ba9f7 345C<sub index :Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you
346are using an older version of Catalyst) that was automatically
347inserted by the helpers when we created the Login controller above,
fa59770d 348and update the definition of C<sub index> to match:
d442cc9f 349
fa59770d 350 =head2 index
861a0cdd 351
d442cc9f 352 Login logic
861a0cdd 353
d442cc9f 354 =cut
861a0cdd 355
fa59770d 356 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 357 my ($self, $c) = @_;
861a0cdd 358
d442cc9f 359 # Get the username and password from form
ab0bd0bb 360 my $username = $c->request->params->{username};
361 my $password = $c->request->params->{password};
861a0cdd 362
d442cc9f 363 # If the username and password values were found in form
ab0bd0bb 364 if ($username && $password) {
d442cc9f 365 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 366 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 367 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 368 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 369 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
370 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
fa59770d 371 return;
d442cc9f 372 } else {
fa59770d 373 # Set an error message
0ed3df53 374 $c->stash(error_msg => "Bad username or password.");
d442cc9f 375 }
ab0bd0bb 376 } else {
fa59770d 377 # Set an error message
b6ff4050 378 $c->stash(error_msg => "Empty username or password.")
379 unless ($c->user_exists);
d442cc9f 380 }
861a0cdd 381
d442cc9f 382 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
0ed3df53 383 $c->stash(template => 'login.tt2');
d442cc9f 384 }
861a0cdd 386Be sure to remove the
fa59770d 387C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Login in Login.');>
388line of the C<sub index>.
d442cc9f 390This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 391login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
392redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
393will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
394C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
f632e28b 395user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 396
636ba9f7 397Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
398however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons,
399and partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
400C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 401found page for the application.
ae492862 402
fa59770d 403Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}>" here to
404specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
405actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the
406controller where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports
407arguments that allow relative and absolute paths to be defined, here
408we use an empty C<Path> definition to match on just the name of the
409controller itself. The method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make
410the match even more specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier --
411this forces the match on I<only> C</login>, not
d442cc9f 413
905a3a26 414Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 415C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Logout.pm> to match:
d442cc9f 416
417 =head2 index
861a0cdd 418
d442cc9f 419 Logout logic
861a0cdd 420
d442cc9f 421 =cut
861a0cdd 422
ae492862 423 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 424 my ($self, $c) = @_;
861a0cdd 425
d442cc9f 426 # Clear the user's state
427 $c->logout;
861a0cdd 428
d442cc9f 429 # Send the user to the starting point
430 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
431 }
905a3a26 433As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 434C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 435line of the C<sub index>.
438=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
440Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
442 [% META title = 'Login' %]
861a0cdd 443
d442cc9f 444 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 445 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 446 <table>
447 <tr>
448 <td>Username:</td>
449 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
450 </tr>
451 <tr>
452 <td>Password:</td>
453 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
454 </tr>
455 <tr>
456 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
457 </tr>
458 </table>
459 </form>
462=head2 Add Valid User Check
464We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
465mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
466passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
861a0cdd 467This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method in
444d6b27 468C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Root.pm>.
d442cc9f 469
470Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Root.pm> class file and insert
471the following method:
473 =head2 auto
861a0cdd 474
d442cc9f 475 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
861a0cdd 476
d442cc9f 477 =cut
861a0cdd 478
d442cc9f 479 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 480 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 481 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
ddfbd850 482 sub auto :Private {
d442cc9f 483 my ($self, $c) = @_;
861a0cdd 484
d442cc9f 485 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 486 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 487 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
488 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 489 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 490 # added above.
491 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
492 return 1;
493 }
861a0cdd 494
d442cc9f 495 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
496 if (!$c->user_exists) {
497 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
498 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
499 # Redirect the user to the login page
500 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
501 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
502 return 0;
503 }
861a0cdd 504
d442cc9f 505 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
506 return 1;
507 }
636ba9f7 509As discussed in
3ab6187c 510L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
636ba9f7 511every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
512most specific controller will be called. By placing the
513authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
514C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Root.pm> (or C<lib/MyApp.pm>), it will be
515called for I<every> request that is received by the entire
0416017e 516application.
d442cc9f 517
519=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
521Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
522changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
523this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
524lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 526 ...
d442cc9f 527 <p>
528 [%
905a3a26 529 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 530 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
531 %]
8a7c5151 532 [% IF c.user_exists %]
533 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
534 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 535 [% ELSE %]
536 You need to log in to use this application.
537 [% END %]
538 [%#
539 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 540 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
541 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
542 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 543 comments.
544 %]
3533daff 545 </p>
d442cc9f 546
547Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
548"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
549page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
550authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
551use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
554=head2 Try Out Authentication
861a0cdd 556The development server should have reloaded each time we edited one of
3e1a2240 557the Controllers in the previous section. Now try going to
861a0cdd 558L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should be redirected to the
559login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload if necessary (the "You
560are already logged in" message should I<not> appear -- if it does, click
561the C<logout> button and try again). Note the C<***Root::auto User not
562found...> debug message in the development server output. Enter username
563C<test01> and password C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book
564List page.
d442cc9f 565
636ba9f7 566B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
567Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
568server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
acbd7bdd 569timestamps for cookies. You can quickly sync a Debian system by
570installing the "ntpdate" package:
572 sudo aptitude -y install ntpdate
574And then run the following command:
25ed8f40 575
acbd7bdd 576 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 577
acbd7bdd 578Or, depending on your firewall configuration:
580 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 582Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 583UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
584Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
585box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 586
d442cc9f 587Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 588bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 589
aa7ff325 590 ...
d442cc9f 591 <p>
8a7c5151 592 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
0416017e 593 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 594 </p>
905a3a26 596Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
597at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
3c700304 598files without a development server reload). Click the first link
905a3a26 599to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 600already logged in" message.
602Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
603You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
604need to log in to use this application."
861a0cdd 609In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
610from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a
efdaddec 611random "salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack with
612dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 613
614B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
615tutorial will function normally.
fbbb9084 617Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
d442cc9f 618still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
619just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
efdaddec 620using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
d442cc9f 621between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
efdaddec 622easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
d442cc9f 623
436f45da 625=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::PassphraseColumn
d442cc9f 626
861a0cdd 627Next, we can re-run the model helper to have it include
436f45da 628L<DBIx::Class::PassphraseColumn> in all of the Result Classes it generates for
629us. Simply use the same command we saw in Chapters 3 and 4, but add
630C<,PassphraseColumn> to the C<components> argument:
d442cc9f 631
efdaddec 632 $ script/myapp_create.pl model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
436f45da 633 create=static components=TimeStamp,PassphraseColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
b66dd084 634 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
d442cc9f 635
861a0cdd 636If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
436f45da 637includes PassphraseColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look at
3b1fa91b 638C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> since that's the main class where we
efdaddec 639want to use hashed and salted passwords:
436f45da 641 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "PassphraseColumn");
efdaddec 642
436f45da 644=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use PassphraseColumn
efdaddec 645
3b1fa91b 646Open the file C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> and enter the following
efdaddec 647text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
648the closing "1;":
436f45da 650 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 20-byte salt
651 # with RFC 2307 encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
efdaddec 652 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
653 'password' => {
436f45da 654 passphrase => 'rfc2307',
655 passphrase_class => 'SaltedDigest',
656 passphrase_args => {
657 algorithm => 'SHA-1',
658 salt_random => 20.
659 },
660 passphrase_check_method => 'check_password',
efdaddec 661 },
662 );
436f45da 664This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password fields at
665the top of the Result Class file to now use PassphraseColumn logic, storing
666passwords in RFC 2307 format (C<passphrase> is set to C<rfc2307>).
667C<passphrase_class> can be set to the name of any C<Authen::Passphrase::*>
668class, such as C<SaltedDigest> to use L<Authen::Passphrase::SaltedDigest>, or
669C<BlowfishCrypt> to use L<Authen::Passphrase::BlowfishCrypt>.
670C<passphrase_args> is then used to customize the passphrase class you
671selected. Here we specified the digest algorithm to use as C<SHA-1> and the size
672of the salt to use, but we could have also specified any other option the
673selected passphrase class supports.
efdaddec 674
675=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
677Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted passwords
678into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the file
679C<set_hashed_passwords.pl> in your editor and enter the following text:
681 #!/usr/bin/perl
861a0cdd 682
efdaddec 683 use strict;
684 use warnings;
861a0cdd 685
efdaddec 686 use MyApp::Schema;
861a0cdd 687
efdaddec 688 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
861a0cdd 689
3b1fa91b 690 my @users = $schema->resultset('User')->all;
861a0cdd 691
efdaddec 692 foreach my $user (@users) {
693 $user->password('mypass');
694 $user->update;
695 }
436f45da 697PassphraseColumn lets us simply call C<$user->check_password($password)>
861a0cdd 698to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
699above, call C<$user->update($new_password)> to update the hashed
efdaddec 700password stored for this user.
702Then run the following command:
2a6eb5f9 704 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib set_hashed_passwords.pl
efdaddec 705
861a0cdd 706We had to use the C<-Ilib> argument to tell perl to look under the
efdaddec 707C<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
2a6eb5f9 709The DBIC_TRACE output should show that the update worked:
711 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib set_hashed_passwords.pl
861a0cdd 712 SELECT me.id, me.username, me.password, me.email_address,
713 me.first_name, me.last_name, me.active FROM users me:
714 UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
436f45da 715 '{SSHA}esgz64CpHMo8pMfgIIszP13ft23z/zio04aCwNdm0wc6MDeloMUH4g==', '1'
861a0cdd 716 UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
436f45da 717 '{SSHA}FpGhpCJus+Ea9ne4ww8404HH+hJKW/fW+bAv1v6FuRUy2G7I2aoTRQ==', '2'
861a0cdd 718 UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
436f45da 719 '{SSHA}ZyGlpiHls8qFBSbHr3r5t/iqcZE602XLMbkSVRRNl6rF8imv1abQVg==', '3'
2a6eb5f9 720
721But we can further confirm our actions by dumping the users table:
efdaddec 722
861a0cdd 723 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from users"
436f45da 724 1|test01|{SSHA}esgz64CpHMo8pMfgIIszP13ft23z/zio04aCwNdm0wc6MDeloMUH4g==|t01@na.com|Joe|Blow|1
725 2|test02|{SSHA}FpGhpCJus+Ea9ne4ww8404HH+hJKW/fW+bAv1v6FuRUy2G7I2aoTRQ==|t02@na.com|Jane|Doe|1
726 3|test03|{SSHA}ZyGlpiHls8qFBSbHr3r5t/iqcZE602XLMbkSVRRNl6rF8imv1abQVg==|t03@na.com|No|Go|0
efdaddec 727
861a0cdd 728As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the
729database (not only are the hashes stored, but every hash is different
730even though the passwords are the same because of the added "salt"
731value). Also note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class
732model outside of your web application -- a very useful feature in many
efdaddec 733situations.
736=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
861a0cdd 738Edit C<lib/MyApp.pm> and update it to match the following text (the
cc0ef55e 739only change is to the C<password_type> field):
efdaddec 740
741 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
19a5b486 742 __PACKAGE__->config(
743 'Plugin::Authentication' => {
efdaddec 744 default => {
745 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 746 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 747 password_type => 'self_check',
748 },
19a5b486 749 },
750 );
efdaddec 751
861a0cdd 752The use of C<self_check> will cause
753Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC to call the
efdaddec 754C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 755
1390ef0e 756
d442cc9f 757=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
861a0cdd 759The development server should restart as soon as your save the
760C<lib/MyApp.pm> file in the previous section. You should now be able to
761go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and login as before. When
762done, click the "logout" link on the login page (or point your browser
763at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 764
d442cc9f 765
861a0cdd 768As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
769you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
770will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
771is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
772authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
773those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
774redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the L<Basic
775CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD> chapter of the tutorial to
4b4d3884 776take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 777
778First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Books.pm> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 779to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
780has changed):
d442cc9f 781
905a3a26 782 =head2 delete
861a0cdd 783
d442cc9f 784 Delete a book
861a0cdd 785
d442cc9f 786 =cut
861a0cdd 787
fbbb9084 788 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
789 my ($self, $c) = @_;
861a0cdd 790
fbbb9084 791 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
792 # with related 'book_authors' entries
793 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
861a0cdd 794
d442cc9f 795 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
796 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
861a0cdd 797
3533daff 798 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 799 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 800 }
1390ef0e 802Next, open C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 803flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 805 ...
d442cc9f 806 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 807 [%# Status and error messages %]
808 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
809 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
810 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
811 [% content %]
812 </div><!-- end content -->
813 ...
905a3a26 814
636ba9f7 815Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the
861a0cdd 816rest of the file intact -- the only change we made to replace
817"|| c.request.params.status_msg" with "c.flash.status_msg" in the
cc0ef55e 818C<< <span class="message"> >> line.
d442cc9f 819
821=head2 Try Out Flash
3c700304 823Authenticate using the login screen and then point your browser to
636ba9f7 824L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
825several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
826"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 827"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 828
829B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
830I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
831exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
832the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
833after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
2217b252 834L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
d442cc9f 835information.
1390ef0e 837
3533daff 838=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
636ba9f7 840Although the a use of flash above works well, the
1390ef0e 841C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 842alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
1390ef0e 843copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your controller
905a3a26 844and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
fbbb9084 845forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
905a3a26 846set the value in C<lib/MyApp.pm> by changing the default
3533daff 847C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
849 __PACKAGE__->config(
efdaddec 850 name => 'MyApp',
3c700304 851 # Disable deprecated behavior needed by old applications
852 disable_component_resolution_regex_fallback => 1,
13dadd45 853 'Plugin::Session' => { flash_to_stash => 1 },
3533daff 854 );
45d511e0 856B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 857
13dadd45 858 <Plugin::Session>
45d511e0 859 flash_to_stash 1
13dadd45 860 </Plugin::Session>
3533daff 861
905a3a26 862The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
863since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 864possibly breaking some of your code.
1390ef0e 866Then edit C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the C<status_msg> line
867to match the following:
3533daff 868
869 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
861a0cdd 871Now go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete
872another of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should
873still maintain the status message across the redirect even though you
874are no longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 875
d442cc9f 876
877=head1 AUTHOR
879Kennedy Clark, C<hkclark@gmail.com>
53243324 881Feel free to contact the author for any errors or suggestions, but the
882best way to report issues is via the CPAN RT Bug system at
885The most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
59884771 886L<http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/repos/Catalyst/Catalyst-Manual/5.80/trunk/lib/Catalyst/Manual/Tutorial/>.
d442cc9f 887
ec3ef4ad 888Copyright 2006-2010, Kennedy Clark, under the
889Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike License Version 3.0
95674086 890(L<http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/>).