change whitespace to reflect current formatting
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / 05_Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
3ab6187c 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 8This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
3ab6187c 16L<Introduction|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>
d442cc9f 17
18=item 2
3ab6187c 20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::02_CatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 21
22=item 3
3ab6187c 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3ab6187c 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3ab6187c 32B<05_Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3ab6187c 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3ab6187c 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::07_Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3ab6187c 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::08_Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3ab6187c 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::09_AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3ab6187c 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::10_Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
4b4d3884 61Chapter 6).
d442cc9f 62
4b4d3884 63This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
d442cc9f 64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
3ab6187c 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
fbbb9084 70
d442cc9f 71=head1 BASIC AUTHENTICATION
73This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
77=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
79First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
80add the role information here although it will not be used until the
4b4d3884 81authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by opening
d442cc9f 82C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
84 --
3b1fa91b 85 -- Add user and role tables, along with a many-to-many join table
d442cc9f 86 --
3b1fa91b 87 CREATE TABLE user (
d442cc9f 88 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
89 username TEXT,
90 password TEXT,
91 email_address TEXT,
92 first_name TEXT,
93 last_name TEXT,
94 active INTEGER
95 );
3b1fa91b 96 CREATE TABLE role (
d442cc9f 97 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
98 role TEXT
99 );
3b1fa91b 100 CREATE TABLE user_role (
d442cc9f 101 user_id INTEGER,
102 role_id INTEGER,
103 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
104 );
105 --
106 -- Load up some initial test data
107 --
3b1fa91b 108 INSERT INTO user VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', '', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
109 INSERT INTO user VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', '', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
110 INSERT INTO user VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', '', 'No', 'Go', 0);
111 INSERT INTO role VALUES (1, 'user');
112 INSERT INTO role VALUES (2, 'admin');
113 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 1);
114 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 2);
115 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (2, 1);
116 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (3, 1);
d442cc9f 117
118Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
120 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
444d6b27 122
d442cc9f 123=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 125Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
126the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
127option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 128
acbd7bdd 129 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
130 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
1390ef0e 131 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
132 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
133 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
134 Schema dump completed.
135 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/"
136 $
acbd7bdd 137 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3b1fa91b 138
d442cc9f 139
905a3a26 140Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific result source
acbd7bdd 141files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 142importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
143files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
191dee29 144MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 145enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 146
3b1fa91b 147Speaking of "hand-editted enhancements," we should now add
905a3a26 148relationship information to the three new result source files. Edit
149each of these files and add the following information between the C<#
3533daff 150DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing C<1;>:
d442cc9f 151
3b1fa91b 152C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 153
d442cc9f 154 #
155 # Set relationships:
156 #
efdaddec 157
d442cc9f 158 # has_many():
159 # args:
160 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
161 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
1435672d 162 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table (aka, foreign key in peer table)
2a6eb5f9 163 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_roles => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::UserRole', 'user_id');
efdaddec 164
3533daff 165 # many_to_many():
166 # args:
167 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 168 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
169 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 170 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
2a6eb5f9 171 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'map_user_roles', 'role');
d442cc9f 172
3b1fa91b 174C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 175
d442cc9f 176 #
177 # Set relationships:
178 #
efdaddec 179
d442cc9f 180 # has_many():
181 # args:
182 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
183 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
1435672d 184 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table (aka, foreign key in peer table)
2a6eb5f9 185 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_roles => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::UserRole', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 186
3b1fa91b 188C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 189
d442cc9f 190 #
191 # Set relationships:
192 #
efdaddec 193
d442cc9f 194 # belongs_to():
195 # args:
196 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
197 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
198 # 3) Column name in *this* table
3b1fa91b 199 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(user => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::User', 'user_id');
efdaddec 200
d442cc9f 201 # belongs_to():
202 # args:
203 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
204 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
205 # 3) Column name in *this* table
3b1fa91b 206 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(role => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::Role', 'role_id');
3533daff 207
905a3a26 208The code for these three sets of updates is obviously very similar to
3b1fa91b 209the edits we made to the C<Book>, C<Author>, and C<BookAuthor>
4b4d3884 210classes created in Chapter 3.
3533daff 211
636ba9f7 212Note that we do not need to make any change to the
213C<lib/MyApp/> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all
214of the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds in below the
215C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our
acbd7bdd 216new table information.
d442cc9f 217
219=head2 Sanity-Check Reload of Development Server
905a3a26 221We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want
222to do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Press
223C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still running)
3533daff 224and restart it:
d442cc9f 225
226 $ script/
228Look for the three new model objects in the startup debug output:
230 ...
231 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
232 | Class | Type |
233 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
234 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
235 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 236 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
237 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
3b1fa91b 238 | MyApp::Model::DB::Book | class |
239 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthor | class |
240 | MyApp::Model::DB::Role | class |
241 | MyApp::Model::DB::User | class |
242 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRole | class |
d442cc9f 243 | MyApp::View::TT | instance |
244 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
245 ...
acbd7bdd 247Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded"
3533daff 248by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 249
251=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 253Edit C<lib/> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 254C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 255
acbd7bdd 256 # Load plugins
2a6eb5f9 257 use Catalyst qw/
258 -Debug
3b1fa91b 259 ConfigLoader
260 Static::Simple
efdaddec 261
3b1fa91b 262 StackTrace
efdaddec 263
3b1fa91b 264 Authentication
efdaddec 265
3b1fa91b 266 Session
267 Session::Store::FastMmap
268 Session::State::Cookie
269 /;
d442cc9f 270
636ba9f7 271B<Note:> As discussed in MoreCatalystBasics, different versions of
444d6b27 272C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods to load the plugins,
273but we are going to use the current Catalyst 5.8X practice of putting
274them on the C<use Catalyst> line.
94d8da41 275
905a3a26 276The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
277C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 279
905a3a26 280Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
281is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
282C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
283Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
284indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 285configuration (see below).
3b1fa91b 287Make sure you include the additional plugins as new dependencies in
288the Makefile.PL file something like this:
290 requires (
291 'Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication' => '0',
292 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session' => '0',
293 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::FastMmap' => '0',
294 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie' => '0',
295 );
905a3a26 297Note that there are several options for
300is generally a good choice if you are on Unix; try
301L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File> if you
302are on Win32) -- consult
303L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
3533daff 304for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
305backed session store).
d442cc9f 306
308=head2 Configure Authentication
3b1fa91b 310There are a variety of ways to provide configuration information to
efdaddec 311L<Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication|Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication>.
312Here we will use
314because it automatically sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. Open
315C<lib/> and place the following text above the call to
318 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
319 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
320 default => {
321 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 322 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 323 password_type => 'clear',
324 },
325 };
327We could have placed this configuration in C<myapp.conf>, but placing
328it in C<lib/> is probably a better place since it's not likely
329something that users of your application will want to change during
c3cf3bc3 330deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave C<class> and
331C<user_model> defined in C<lib/> as we show above, but place
332C<password_type> in C<myapp.conf> to allow the type of password to be
333easily modified during deployment). We will stick with putting
334all of the authentication-related configuration in C<lib/>
335for the tutorial, but if you wish to use C<myapp.conf>, just convert
336to the following code:
338 <Plugin::Authentication>
c3cf3bc3 339 <default>
43707053 340 password_type clear
3b1fa91b 341 user_model DB::User
c3cf3bc3 342 class SimpleDB
343 </default>
344 </Plugin::Authentication>
346B<TIP:> Here is a short script that will dump the contents of
347C<MyApp->config> to L<Config::General|Config::General> format in
350 $ perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
351 Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'
d442cc9f 352
c4fa597d 353B<NOTE:> Because we are using SimpleDB along with a database layout
354that complies with its default assumptions, we don't need to specify
355the names of the columns where our username and password information
356is stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB"). That being said,
87236f03 357SimpleDB lets you specify that type of information if you need to.
c4fa597d 358Take a look at
360for details.
1390ef0e 362
d442cc9f 363=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
365Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
367 $ script/ controller Login
368 $ script/ controller Logout
636ba9f7 370You could easily use a single controller here. For example, you could
371have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
372Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 373matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 374
636ba9f7 375Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>, locate the
376C<sub index :Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you
377are using an older version of Catalyst) that was automatically
378inserted by the helpers when we created the Login controller above,
fbbb9084 379and update the definition of C<sub index> to match:
d442cc9f 380
381 =head2 index
efdaddec 382
d442cc9f 383 Login logic
efdaddec 384
d442cc9f 385 =cut
efdaddec 386
ae492862 387 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 388 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 389
d442cc9f 390 # Get the username and password from form
ab0bd0bb 391 my $username = $c->request->params->{username};
392 my $password = $c->request->params->{password};
efdaddec 393
d442cc9f 394 # If the username and password values were found in form
ab0bd0bb 395 if ($username && $password) {
d442cc9f 396 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 397 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 398 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 399 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 400 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
401 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 402 return;
403 } else {
404 # Set an error message
405 $c->stash->{error_msg} = "Bad username or password.";
406 }
ab0bd0bb 407 } else {
408 # Set an error message
409 $c->stash->{error_msg} = "Empty username or password.";
d442cc9f 410 }
efdaddec 411
d442cc9f 412 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
413 $c->stash->{template} = 'login.tt2';
414 }
3b1fa91b 416Be sure to remove the C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Login in Login.');>
417line of the C<sub index>.
d442cc9f 419This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 420login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
421redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
422will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
423C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
f632e28b 424user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 425
636ba9f7 426Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
427however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons,
428and partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
429C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 430found page for the application.
ae492862 431
fbbb9084 432Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}>" here to
905a3a26 433specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
434actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the
435controller where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports
436arguments that allow relative and absolute paths to be defined, here
437we use an empty C<Path> definition to match on just the name of the
438controller itself. The method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make
ae492862 439the match even more specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier --
905a3a26 440this forces the match on I<only> C</login>, not
d442cc9f 441C</login/somethingelse>.
905a3a26 443Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 444C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> to match:
d442cc9f 445
446 =head2 index
efdaddec 447
d442cc9f 448 Logout logic
efdaddec 449
d442cc9f 450 =cut
efdaddec 451
ae492862 452 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 453 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 454
d442cc9f 455 # Clear the user's state
456 $c->logout;
efdaddec 457
d442cc9f 458 # Send the user to the starting point
459 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
460 }
905a3a26 462As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 463C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 464line of the C<sub index>.
467=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
469Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
471 [% META title = 'Login' %]
efdaddec 472
d442cc9f 473 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 474 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 475 <table>
476 <tr>
477 <td>Username:</td>
478 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
479 </tr>
480 <tr>
481 <td>Password:</td>
482 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
483 </tr>
484 <tr>
485 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
486 </tr>
487 </table>
488 </form>
491=head2 Add Valid User Check
493We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
494mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
495passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
444d6b27 496This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method in
d442cc9f 498
499Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> class file and insert
500the following method:
502 =head2 auto
efdaddec 503
d442cc9f 504 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
efdaddec 505
d442cc9f 506 =cut
efdaddec 507
d442cc9f 508 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 509 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 510 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
511 sub auto : Private {
512 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 513
d442cc9f 514 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 515 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 516 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
517 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 518 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 519 # added above.
520 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
521 return 1;
522 }
efdaddec 523
d442cc9f 524 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
525 if (!$c->user_exists) {
526 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
527 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
528 # Redirect the user to the login page
529 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
530 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
531 return 0;
532 }
efdaddec 533
d442cc9f 534 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
535 return 1;
536 }
636ba9f7 538As discussed in
3ab6187c 539L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
636ba9f7 540every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
541most specific controller will be called. By placing the
542authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
543C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> (or C<lib/>), it will be
544called for I<every> request that is received by the entire
0416017e 545application.
d442cc9f 546
548=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
550Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
551changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
552this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
553lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 555 ...
d442cc9f 556 <p>
557 [%
905a3a26 558 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 559 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
560 %]
8a7c5151 561 [% IF c.user_exists %]
562 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
563 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 564 [% ELSE %]
565 You need to log in to use this application.
566 [% END %]
567 [%#
568 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 569 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
570 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
571 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 572 comments.
573 %]
3533daff 574 </p>
d442cc9f 575
576Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
577"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
578page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
579authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
580use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
583=head2 Try Out Authentication
585Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
586running) and restart it:
588 $ script/
636ba9f7 590B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
591Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
592server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
acbd7bdd 593timestamps for cookies. You can quickly sync a Debian system by
594installing the "ntpdate" package:
596 sudo aptitude -y install ntpdate
598And then run the following command:
25ed8f40 599
acbd7bdd 600 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 601
acbd7bdd 602Or, depending on your firewall configuration:
604 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 606Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 607UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
608Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
609box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 610
636ba9f7 611Now trying going to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should
612be redirected to the login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload
613if necessary (the "You are already logged in" message should I<not>
614appear -- if it does, click the C<logout> button and try again). Note
615the C<***Root::auto User not found...> debug message in the
616development server output. Enter username C<test01> and password
1390ef0e 617C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book List page.
d442cc9f 618
619Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 620bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 621
622 <p>
8a7c5151 623 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
0416017e 624 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 625 </p>
905a3a26 627Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
628at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
629files without reloading the development server). Click the first link
630to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 631already logged in" message.
633Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
634You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
635need to log in to use this application."
efdaddec 640In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
641from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a
642random "salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack with
643dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 644
645B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
646tutorial will function normally.
fbbb9084 648Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
d442cc9f 649still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
650just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
efdaddec 651using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
d442cc9f 652between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
efdaddec 653easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
d442cc9f 654
efdaddec 656=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 657
efdaddec 658Next, we can re-run the model helper to have it include
659L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> in all of the
660Result Classes it generates for us. Simply use the same command we
661saw in Chapters 3 and 4, but add C<,EncodedColumn> to the C<components>
d442cc9f 663
efdaddec 664 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
665 create=static components=TimeStamp,EncodedColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
d442cc9f 666
efdaddec 667If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
668includes EncodedColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look at
3b1fa91b 669C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> since that's the main class where we
efdaddec 670want to use hashed and salted passwords:
672 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "EncodedColumn", "Core");
675=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use EncodedColumn
3b1fa91b 677Open the file C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> and enter the following
efdaddec 678text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
679the closing "1;":
681 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 10-character salt
682 # with hex encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
683 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
684 'password' => {
685 data_type => "TEXT",
686 size => undef,
687 encode_column => 1,
688 encode_class => 'Digest',
689 encode_args => {salt_length => 10},
690 encode_check_method => 'check_password',
691 },
692 );
694This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password
695fields at the top of the Result Class file to now use EncodedColumn
696logic (C<encoded_column> is set to 1). C<encode_class> can be set to
697either C<Digest> to use
699or C<Crypt::Eksblowfish::Bcrypt> for
701C<encode_args> is then used to customize the type of Digest you
702selected. Here we only specified the size of the salt to use, but
703we could have also modified the hashing algorithm ('SHA-256' is
704the default) and the format to use ('base64' is the default, but
705'hex' and 'binary' are other options). To use these, you could
706change the C<encode_args> to something like:
708 encode_args => {algorithm => 'SHA-1',
709 format => 'hex',
710 salt_length => 10},
713=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
715Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted passwords
716into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the file
717C<> in your editor and enter the following text:
719 #!/usr/bin/perl
721 use strict;
722 use warnings;
724 use MyApp::Schema;
726 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
3b1fa91b 728 my @users = $schema->resultset('User')->all;
efdaddec 729
730 foreach my $user (@users) {
731 $user->password('mypass');
732 $user->update;
733 }
735EncodedColumn lets us simple call C<$user->check_password($password)>
736to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
737above, call C<$user->update($new_password)> to update the hashed
738password stored for this user.
740Then run the following command:
2a6eb5f9 742 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
efdaddec 743
c12b0d35 744We had to use the C<-Ilib> argument to tell perl to look under the
efdaddec 745C<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
2a6eb5f9 747The DBIC_TRACE output should show that the update worked:
749 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
cc0ef55e 750 SELECT, me.username, me.password, me.email_address,
751 me.first_name, me.last_name, FROM user me:
752 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
753 'oXiyAcGOjowz7ISUhpIm1IrS8AxSZ9r4jNjpX9VnVeQmN6GRtRKTz', '1'
754 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
755 'PmyEPrkB8EGwvaF/DvJm7LIfxoZARjv8ygFIR7pc1gEA1OfwHGNzs', '2'
756 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
757 'h7CS1Fm9UCs4hjcbu2im0HumaHCJUq4Uriac+SQgdUMUfFSoOrz3c', '3'
2a6eb5f9 758
759But we can further confirm our actions by dumping the users table:
efdaddec 760
3b1fa91b 761 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from user"
efdaddec 762 1|test01|38d3974fa9e9263099f7bc2574284b2f55473a9bM=fwpX2NR8||Joe|Blow|1
763 2|test02|6ed8586587e53e0d7509b1cfed5df08feadc68cbMJlnPyPt0I||Jane|Doe|1
764 3|test03|af929a151340c6aed4d54d7e2651795d1ad2e2f7UW8dHoGv9z||No|Go|0
766As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the
444d6b27 767database (not only are the hashes stored, but every hash is different
768even though the passwords are the same because of the added "salt"
769value). Also note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class
efdaddec 770model outside of your web application -- a very useful feature in many
774=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
cc0ef55e 776Edit C<lib/> and update it to match the following text (the
777only change is to the C<password_type> field):
efdaddec 778
779 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
780 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
781 default => {
782 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 783 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 784 password_type => 'self_check',
785 },
786 };
788The use of C<self_check> will cause
789Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC to call the
790C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 791
1390ef0e 792
d442cc9f 793=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
795Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
796running) and restart it:
798 $ script/
800You should now be able to go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and
fbbb9084 801login as before. When done, click the "logout" link on the login page
d442cc9f 802(or point your browser at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 804
4b4d3884 807As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
808you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
809will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
810is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
811authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
812those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
813redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the L<Basic
3ab6187c 814CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD> chapter of the tutorial to
4b4d3884 815take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 816
817First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 818to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
819has changed):
d442cc9f 820
905a3a26 821 =head2 delete
efdaddec 822
d442cc9f 823 Delete a book
efdaddec 824
d442cc9f 825 =cut
efdaddec 826
fbbb9084 827 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
828 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 829
fbbb9084 830 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
831 # with related 'book_authors' entries
832 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
efdaddec 833
d442cc9f 834 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
835 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
efdaddec 836
3533daff 837 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 838 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 839 }
1390ef0e 841Next, open C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 842flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 844 ...
d442cc9f 845 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 846 [%# Status and error messages %]
847 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
848 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
849 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
850 [% content %]
851 </div><!-- end content -->
852 ...
905a3a26 853
636ba9f7 854Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the
cc0ef55e 855rest of the file intact -- the only change we made to replace
856"|| c.request.params.status_msg" with "c.flash.status_msg" in the
857C<< <span class="message"> >> line.
d442cc9f 858
860=head2 Try Out Flash
636ba9f7 862Restart the development server, log in, and then point your browser to
863L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
864several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
865"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 866"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 867
868B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
869I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
870exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
871the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
872after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
873L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session|Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
1390ef0e 876
3533daff 877=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
636ba9f7 879Although the a use of flash above works well, the
1390ef0e 880C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 881alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
1390ef0e 882copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your controller
905a3a26 883and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
fbbb9084 884forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
905a3a26 885set the value in C<lib/> by changing the default
3533daff 886C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
888 __PACKAGE__->config(
efdaddec 889 name => 'MyApp',
444d6b27 890 session => {flash_to_stash => 1},
3533daff 891 );
45d511e0 893B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 894
45d511e0 895 <session>
896 flash_to_stash 1
897 </session>
3533daff 898
905a3a26 899The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
900since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 901possibly breaking some of your code.
1390ef0e 903Then edit C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the C<status_msg> line
904to match the following:
3533daff 905
906 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
908Restart the development server and go to
905a3a26 909L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete another
3533daff 910of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should still
911maintain the status message across the redirect even though you are no
8a7c5151 912longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 913
d442cc9f 914
915=head1 AUTHOR
917Kennedy Clark, C<>
919Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The
920most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
59884771 921L<>.
d442cc9f 922
45c7830f 923Copyright 2006-2008, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License
95674086 924(L<>).