Remove create=dynamic stuff left around by mistake (with thanks to garu)
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
4b4d3884 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 8This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
18=item 2
20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::CatalystBasics>
22=item 3
3533daff 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3533daff 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3533daff 32B<Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3533daff 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3533daff 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3533daff 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3533daff 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3533daff 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
4b4d3884 61Chapter 6).
d442cc9f 62
4b4d3884 63This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
d442cc9f 64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
1390ef0e 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Intro|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
fbbb9084 70
d442cc9f 71=head1 BASIC AUTHENTICATION
73This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
77=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
79First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
80add the role information here although it will not be used until the
4b4d3884 81authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by opening
d442cc9f 82C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
84 --
85 -- Add users and roles tables, along with a many-to-many join table
86 --
87 CREATE TABLE users (
89 username TEXT,
90 password TEXT,
91 email_address TEXT,
92 first_name TEXT,
93 last_name TEXT,
94 active INTEGER
95 );
96 CREATE TABLE roles (
98 role TEXT
99 );
100 CREATE TABLE user_roles (
101 user_id INTEGER,
102 role_id INTEGER,
103 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
104 );
105 --
106 -- Load up some initial test data
107 --
108 INSERT INTO users VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', '', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
109 INSERT INTO users VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', '', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
110 INSERT INTO users VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', '', 'No', 'Go', 0);
111 INSERT INTO roles VALUES (1, 'user');
112 INSERT INTO roles VALUES (2, 'admin');
113 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (1, 1);
114 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (1, 2);
115 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (2, 1);
116 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (3, 1);
118Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
120 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
123=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 125Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
126the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
127option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 128
acbd7bdd 129 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
130 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
1390ef0e 131 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
132 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
133 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
134 Schema dump completed.
135 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/"
136 $
acbd7bdd 137 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3533daff 138
d442cc9f 139
905a3a26 140Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific result source
acbd7bdd 141files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 142importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
143files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
191dee29 144MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 145enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 146
191dee29 147Speaking of "hand-edit ted enhancements," we should now add
905a3a26 148relationship information to the three new result source files. Edit
149each of these files and add the following information between the C<#
3533daff 150DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing C<1;>:
d442cc9f 151
acbd7bdd 152C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 153
d442cc9f 154 #
155 # Set relationships:
156 #
efdaddec 157
d442cc9f 158 # has_many():
159 # args:
160 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
161 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
1435672d 162 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table (aka, foreign key in peer table)
acbd7bdd 163 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_role => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::UserRoles', 'user_id');
efdaddec 164
3533daff 165 # many_to_many():
166 # args:
167 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 168 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
169 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 170 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
171 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'map_user_role', 'role');
d442cc9f 172
acbd7bdd 174C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 175
d442cc9f 176 #
177 # Set relationships:
178 #
efdaddec 179
d442cc9f 180 # has_many():
181 # args:
182 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
183 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
1435672d 184 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table (aka, foreign key in peer table)
acbd7bdd 185 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_role => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::UserRoles', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 186
acbd7bdd 188C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 189
d442cc9f 190 #
191 # Set relationships:
192 #
efdaddec 193
d442cc9f 194 # belongs_to():
195 # args:
196 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
197 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
198 # 3) Column name in *this* table
acbd7bdd 199 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(user => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::Users', 'user_id');
efdaddec 200
d442cc9f 201 # belongs_to():
202 # args:
203 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
204 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
205 # 3) Column name in *this* table
acbd7bdd 206 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(role => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::Roles', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 207
3533daff 208
905a3a26 209The code for these three sets of updates is obviously very similar to
210the edits we made to the C<Books>, C<Authors>, and C<BookAuthors>
4b4d3884 211classes created in Chapter 3.
3533daff 212
636ba9f7 213Note that we do not need to make any change to the
214C<lib/MyApp/> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all
215of the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds in below the
216C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our
acbd7bdd 217new table information.
d442cc9f 218
220=head2 Sanity-Check Reload of Development Server
905a3a26 222We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want
223to do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Press
224C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still running)
3533daff 225and restart it:
d442cc9f 226
227 $ script/
229Look for the three new model objects in the startup debug output:
231 ...
232 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
233 | Class | Type |
234 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
235 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
236 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 237 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
238 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
239 | MyApp::Model::DB::Books | class |
240 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthors | class |
241 | MyApp::Model::DB::Roles | class |
242 | MyApp::Model::DB::Users | class |
243 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRoles | class |
d442cc9f 244 | MyApp::View::TT | instance |
245 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
246 ...
acbd7bdd 248Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded"
3533daff 249by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 250
252=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 254Edit C<lib/> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 255C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 256
acbd7bdd 257 # Load plugins
258 use Catalyst qw/-Debug
259 ConfigLoader
260 Static::Simple
efdaddec 261
acbd7bdd 262 StackTrace
efdaddec 263
acbd7bdd 264 Authentication
efdaddec 265
acbd7bdd 266 Session
267 Session::Store::FastMmap
268 Session::State::Cookie
269 /;
d442cc9f 270
636ba9f7 271B<Note:> As discussed in MoreCatalystBasics, different versions of
272C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods to load the plugins.
533fee73 273You can put the plugins in the C<use Catalyst> statement if you prefer.
94d8da41 274
905a3a26 275The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
276C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 278
905a3a26 279Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
280is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
281C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
282Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
283indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 284configuration (see below).
905a3a26 286Note that there are several options for
289is generally a good choice if you are on Unix; try
290L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File> if you
291are on Win32) -- consult
292L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
3533daff 293for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
294backed session store).
d442cc9f 295
297=head2 Configure Authentication
efdaddec 299There are a variety of way to provide configuration information to
301Here we will use
303because it automatically sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. Open
304C<lib/> and place the following text above the call to
307 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
308 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
309 default => {
310 class => 'SimpleDB',
311 user_model => 'DB::Users',
312 password_type => 'clear',
313 },
314 };
316We could have placed this configuration in C<myapp.conf>, but placing
317it in C<lib/> is probably a better place since it's not likely
318something that users of your application will want to change during
c3cf3bc3 319deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave C<class> and
320C<user_model> defined in C<lib/> as we show above, but place
321C<password_type> in C<myapp.conf> to allow the type of password to be
322easily modified during deployment). We will stick with putting
323all of the authentication-related configuration in C<lib/>
324for the tutorial, but if you wish to use C<myapp.conf>, just convert
325to the following code:
327 <Plugin::Authentication>
328 use_session 1
329 <default>
330 password_type self_check
331 user_model DB::Users
332 class SimpleDB
333 </default>
334 </Plugin::Authentication>
336B<TIP:> Here is a short script that will dump the contents of
337C<MyApp->config> to L<Config::General|Config::General> format in
340 $ perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
341 Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'
d442cc9f 342
c4fa597d 343B<NOTE:> Because we are using SimpleDB along with a database layout
344that complies with its default assumptions, we don't need to specify
345the names of the columns where our username and password information
346is stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB"). That being said,
347SimpleDB let's you specify that type of information if you need to.
348Take a look at
350for details.
1390ef0e 352
d442cc9f 353=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
355Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
357 $ script/ controller Login
358 $ script/ controller Logout
636ba9f7 360You could easily use a single controller here. For example, you could
361have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
362Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 363matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 364
636ba9f7 365Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>, locate the
366C<sub index :Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you
367are using an older version of Catalyst) that was automatically
368inserted by the helpers when we created the Login controller above,
fbbb9084 369and update the definition of C<sub index> to match:
d442cc9f 370
371 =head2 index
efdaddec 372
d442cc9f 373 Login logic
efdaddec 374
d442cc9f 375 =cut
efdaddec 376
ae492862 377 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 378 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 379
d442cc9f 380 # Get the username and password from form
381 my $username = $c->request->params->{username} || "";
382 my $password = $c->request->params->{password} || "";
efdaddec 383
d442cc9f 384 # If the username and password values were found in form
385 if ($username && $password) {
386 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 387 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 388 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 389 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 390 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
391 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 392 return;
393 } else {
394 # Set an error message
395 $c->stash->{error_msg} = "Bad username or password.";
396 }
397 }
efdaddec 398
d442cc9f 399 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
400 $c->stash->{template} = 'login.tt2';
401 }
403This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 404login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
405redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
406will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
407C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
f632e28b 408user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 409
636ba9f7 410Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
411however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons,
412and partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
413C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 414found page for the application.
ae492862 415
fbbb9084 416Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}>" here to
905a3a26 417specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
418actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the
419controller where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports
420arguments that allow relative and absolute paths to be defined, here
421we use an empty C<Path> definition to match on just the name of the
422controller itself. The method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make
ae492862 423the match even more specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier --
905a3a26 424this forces the match on I<only> C</login>, not
d442cc9f 425C</login/somethingelse>.
905a3a26 427Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 428C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> to match:
d442cc9f 429
430 =head2 index
efdaddec 431
d442cc9f 432 Logout logic
efdaddec 433
d442cc9f 434 =cut
efdaddec 435
ae492862 436 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 437 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 438
d442cc9f 439 # Clear the user's state
440 $c->logout;
efdaddec 441
d442cc9f 442 # Send the user to the starting point
443 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
444 }
905a3a26 446As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 447C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 448line of the C<sub index>.
451=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
453Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
455 [% META title = 'Login' %]
efdaddec 456
d442cc9f 457 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 458 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 459 <table>
460 <tr>
461 <td>Username:</td>
462 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
463 </tr>
464 <tr>
465 <td>Password:</td>
466 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
467 </tr>
468 <tr>
469 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
470 </tr>
471 </table>
472 </form>
475=head2 Add Valid User Check
477We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
478mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
479passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
480This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method (prior to Catalyst
481v5.66, this sort of thing would go in C<>, but starting in
482v5.66, the preferred location is C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>).
484Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> class file and insert
485the following method:
487 =head2 auto
efdaddec 488
d442cc9f 489 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
efdaddec 490
d442cc9f 491 =cut
efdaddec 492
d442cc9f 493 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 494 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 495 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
496 sub auto : Private {
497 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 498
d442cc9f 499 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 500 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 501 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
502 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 503 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 504 # added above.
505 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
506 return 1;
507 }
efdaddec 508
d442cc9f 509 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
510 if (!$c->user_exists) {
511 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
512 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
513 # Redirect the user to the login page
514 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
515 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
516 return 0;
517 }
efdaddec 518
d442cc9f 519 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
520 return 1;
521 }
636ba9f7 523As discussed in
524L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
525every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
526most specific controller will be called. By placing the
527authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
528C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> (or C<lib/>), it will be
529called for I<every> request that is received by the entire
0416017e 530application.
d442cc9f 531
533=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
535Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
536changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
537this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
538lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 540 ...
d442cc9f 541 <p>
542 [%
905a3a26 543 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 544 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
545 %]
8a7c5151 546 [% IF c.user_exists %]
547 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
548 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 549 [% ELSE %]
550 You need to log in to use this application.
551 [% END %]
552 [%#
553 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 554 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
555 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
556 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 557 comments.
558 %]
3533daff 559 </p>
d442cc9f 560
561Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
562"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
563page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
564authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
565use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
568=head2 Try Out Authentication
570Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
571running) and restart it:
573 $ script/
636ba9f7 575B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
576Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
577server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
acbd7bdd 578timestamps for cookies. You can quickly sync a Debian system by
579installing the "ntpdate" package:
581 sudo aptitude -y install ntpdate
583And then run the following command:
25ed8f40 584
acbd7bdd 585 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 586
acbd7bdd 587Or, depending on your firewall configuration:
589 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 591Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 592UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
593Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
594box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 595
636ba9f7 596Now trying going to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should
597be redirected to the login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload
598if necessary (the "You are already logged in" message should I<not>
599appear -- if it does, click the C<logout> button and try again). Note
600the C<***Root::auto User not found...> debug message in the
601development server output. Enter username C<test01> and password
1390ef0e 602C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book List page.
d442cc9f 603
604Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 605bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 606
607 <p>
8a7c5151 608 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
0416017e 609 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 610 </p>
905a3a26 612Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
613at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
614files without reloading the development server). Click the first link
615to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 616already logged in" message.
618Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
619You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
620need to log in to use this application."
efdaddec 625In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
626from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a
627random "salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack with
628dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 629
630B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
631tutorial will function normally.
fbbb9084 633Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
d442cc9f 634still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
635just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
efdaddec 636using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
d442cc9f 637between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
efdaddec 638easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
d442cc9f 639
efdaddec 641=head2 Install DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 642
efdaddec 643L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> provides features
644that can greatly simplify the maintenance of passwords. It's currently
645not available as a .deb package in the normal Debian repositories, so let's
646install it directly from CPAN:
d442cc9f 647
efdaddec 648 $ sudo cpan DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d0496197 649
d442cc9f 650
efdaddec 651=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 652
efdaddec 653Next, we can re-run the model helper to have it include
654L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> in all of the
655Result Classes it generates for us. Simply use the same command we
656saw in Chapters 3 and 4, but add C<,EncodedColumn> to the C<components>
d442cc9f 658
efdaddec 659 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
660 create=static components=TimeStamp,EncodedColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
d442cc9f 661
efdaddec 662If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
663includes EncodedColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look at
664C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> since that's the main class where we
665want to use hashed and salted passwords:
667 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "EncodedColumn", "Core");
670=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use EncodedColumn
672Open the file C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> and enter the following
673text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
674the closing "1;":
676 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 10-character salt
677 # with hex encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
678 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
679 'password' => {
680 data_type => "TEXT",
681 size => undef,
682 encode_column => 1,
683 encode_class => 'Digest',
684 encode_args => {salt_length => 10},
685 encode_check_method => 'check_password',
686 },
687 );
689This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password
690fields at the top of the Result Class file to now use EncodedColumn
691logic (C<encoded_column> is set to 1). C<encode_class> can be set to
692either C<Digest> to use
694or C<Crypt::Eksblowfish::Bcrypt> for
696C<encode_args> is then used to customize the type of Digest you
697selected. Here we only specified the size of the salt to use, but
698we could have also modified the hashing algorithm ('SHA-256' is
699the default) and the format to use ('base64' is the default, but
700'hex' and 'binary' are other options). To use these, you could
701change the C<encode_args> to something like:
703 encode_args => {algorithm => 'SHA-1',
704 format => 'hex',
705 salt_length => 10},
708=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
710Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted passwords
711into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the file
712C<> in your editor and enter the following text:
714 #!/usr/bin/perl
716 use strict;
717 use warnings;
719 use MyApp::Schema;
721 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
723 my @users = $schema->resultset('Users')->all;
725 foreach my $user (@users) {
726 $user->password('mypass');
727 $user->update;
728 }
730EncodedColumn lets us simple call C<$user->check_password($password)>
731to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
732above, call C<$user->update($new_password)> to update the hashed
733password stored for this user.
735Then run the following command:
737 $ perl -Ilib
739We had to use the C<-Ilib> arguement to tell perl to look under the
740C<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
742Then dump the users table to verify that it worked:
744 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from users"
745 1|test01|38d3974fa9e9263099f7bc2574284b2f55473a9bM=fwpX2NR8||Joe|Blow|1
746 2|test02|6ed8586587e53e0d7509b1cfed5df08feadc68cbMJlnPyPt0I||Jane|Doe|1
747 3|test03|af929a151340c6aed4d54d7e2651795d1ad2e2f7UW8dHoGv9z||No|Go|0
749As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the
750database. Also note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class
751model outside of your web application -- a very useful feature in many
755=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
757Edit C<lib/> and update it to match the following text (the only change
758is to the C<password_type> field):
760 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
761 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
762 default => {
763 class => 'SimpleDB',
764 user_model => 'DB::Users',
765 password_type => 'self_check',
766 },
767 };
769The use of C<self_check> will cause
770Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC to call the
771C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 772
1390ef0e 773
d442cc9f 774=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
776Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
777running) and restart it:
779 $ script/
781You should now be able to go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and
fbbb9084 782login as before. When done, click the "logout" link on the login page
d442cc9f 783(or point your browser at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 785
4b4d3884 788As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
789you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
790will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
791is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
792authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
793those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
794redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the L<Basic
795CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::BasicCRUD> chapter of the tutorial to
796take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 797
798First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 799to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
800has changed):
d442cc9f 801
905a3a26 802 =head2 delete
efdaddec 803
d442cc9f 804 Delete a book
efdaddec 805
d442cc9f 806 =cut
efdaddec 807
fbbb9084 808 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
809 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 810
fbbb9084 811 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
812 # with related 'book_authors' entries
813 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
efdaddec 814
d442cc9f 815 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
816 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
efdaddec 817
3533daff 818 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 819 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 820 }
1390ef0e 822Next, open C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 823flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 825 ...
d442cc9f 826 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 827 [%# Status and error messages %]
828 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
829 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
830 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
831 [% content %]
832 </div><!-- end content -->
833 ...
905a3a26 834
636ba9f7 835Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the
1390ef0e 836rest of the file intact -- the only change we made to the C<wrapper.tt2>
636ba9f7 837was to add "C<|| c.request.params.status_msg>" to the
1390ef0e 838C<E<lt>span class="message"E<gt>> line.
d442cc9f 839
841=head2 Try Out Flash
636ba9f7 843Restart the development server, log in, and then point your browser to
844L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
845several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
846"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 847"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 848
849B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
850I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
851exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
852the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
853after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
854L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session|Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
1390ef0e 857
3533daff 858=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
636ba9f7 860Although the a use of flash above works well, the
1390ef0e 861C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 862alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
1390ef0e 863copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your controller
905a3a26 864and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
fbbb9084 865forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
905a3a26 866set the value in C<lib/> by changing the default
3533daff 867C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
869 __PACKAGE__->config(
efdaddec 870 name => 'MyApp',
3533daff 871 session => {flash_to_stash => 1}
872 );
45d511e0 874B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 875
45d511e0 876 <session>
877 flash_to_stash 1
878 </session>
3533daff 879
905a3a26 880The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
881since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 882possibly breaking some of your code.
1390ef0e 884Then edit C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the C<status_msg> line
885to match the following:
3533daff 886
887 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
889Restart the development server and go to
905a3a26 890L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete another
3533daff 891of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should still
892maintain the status message across the redirect even though you are no
8a7c5151 893longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 894
d442cc9f 895
896=head1 AUTHOR
898Kennedy Clark, C<>
900Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The
901most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
82ab4bbf 902L<>.
d442cc9f 903
45c7830f 904Copyright 2006-2008, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License
95674086 905(L<>).