Remove old hack for Data::Dumper that should no longer be required
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
4b4d3884 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 8This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
18=item 2
20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::CatalystBasics>
22=item 3
3533daff 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3533daff 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3533daff 32B<Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3533daff 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3533daff 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3533daff 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3533daff 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3533daff 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
4b4d3884 61Chapter 6).
d442cc9f 62
4b4d3884 63This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
d442cc9f 64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
1390ef0e 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Intro|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
fbbb9084 70
d442cc9f 71=head1 BASIC AUTHENTICATION
73This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
77=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
79First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
80add the role information here although it will not be used until the
4b4d3884 81authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by opening
d442cc9f 82C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
84 --
85 -- Add users and roles tables, along with a many-to-many join table
86 --
87 CREATE TABLE users (
89 username TEXT,
90 password TEXT,
91 email_address TEXT,
92 first_name TEXT,
93 last_name TEXT,
94 active INTEGER
95 );
96 CREATE TABLE roles (
98 role TEXT
99 );
100 CREATE TABLE user_roles (
101 user_id INTEGER,
102 role_id INTEGER,
103 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
104 );
105 --
106 -- Load up some initial test data
107 --
108 INSERT INTO users VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', '', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
109 INSERT INTO users VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', '', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
110 INSERT INTO users VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', '', 'No', 'Go', 0);
111 INSERT INTO roles VALUES (1, 'user');
112 INSERT INTO roles VALUES (2, 'admin');
113 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (1, 1);
114 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (1, 2);
115 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (2, 1);
116 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (3, 1);
118Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
120 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
123=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 125Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
126the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
127option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 128
acbd7bdd 129 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
130 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
1390ef0e 131 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
132 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
133 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
134 Schema dump completed.
135 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/"
136 $
acbd7bdd 137 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3533daff 138
d442cc9f 139
905a3a26 140Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific result source
acbd7bdd 141files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 142importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
143files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
191dee29 144MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 145enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 146
191dee29 147Speaking of "hand-edit ted enhancements," we should now add
905a3a26 148relationship information to the three new result source files. Edit
149each of these files and add the following information between the C<#
3533daff 150DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing C<1;>:
d442cc9f 151
acbd7bdd 152C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 153
d442cc9f 154 #
155 # Set relationships:
156 #
efdaddec 157
d442cc9f 158 # has_many():
159 # args:
160 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
161 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
1435672d 162 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table (aka, foreign key in peer table)
acbd7bdd 163 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_role => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::UserRoles', 'user_id');
efdaddec 164
3533daff 165 # many_to_many():
166 # args:
167 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 168 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
169 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 170 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
171 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'map_user_role', 'role');
d442cc9f 172
acbd7bdd 174C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 175
d442cc9f 176 #
177 # Set relationships:
178 #
efdaddec 179
d442cc9f 180 # has_many():
181 # args:
182 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
183 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
1435672d 184 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table (aka, foreign key in peer table)
acbd7bdd 185 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_role => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::UserRoles', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 186
acbd7bdd 188C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 189
d442cc9f 190 #
191 # Set relationships:
192 #
efdaddec 193
d442cc9f 194 # belongs_to():
195 # args:
196 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
197 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
198 # 3) Column name in *this* table
acbd7bdd 199 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(user => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::Users', 'user_id');
efdaddec 200
d442cc9f 201 # belongs_to():
202 # args:
203 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
204 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
205 # 3) Column name in *this* table
acbd7bdd 206 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(role => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::Roles', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 207
3533daff 208
905a3a26 209The code for these three sets of updates is obviously very similar to
210the edits we made to the C<Books>, C<Authors>, and C<BookAuthors>
4b4d3884 211classes created in Chapter 3.
3533daff 212
636ba9f7 213Note that we do not need to make any change to the
214C<lib/MyApp/> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all
215of the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds in below the
216C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our
acbd7bdd 217new table information.
d442cc9f 218
220=head2 Sanity-Check Reload of Development Server
905a3a26 222We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want
223to do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Press
224C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still running)
3533daff 225and restart it:
d442cc9f 226
227 $ script/
229Look for the three new model objects in the startup debug output:
231 ...
232 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
233 | Class | Type |
234 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
235 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
236 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 237 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
238 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
239 | MyApp::Model::DB::Books | class |
240 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthors | class |
241 | MyApp::Model::DB::Roles | class |
242 | MyApp::Model::DB::Users | class |
243 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRoles | class |
d442cc9f 244 | MyApp::View::TT | instance |
245 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
246 ...
acbd7bdd 248Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded"
3533daff 249by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 250
252=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 254Edit C<lib/> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 255C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 256
acbd7bdd 257 # Load plugins
258 use Catalyst qw/-Debug
259 ConfigLoader
260 Static::Simple
efdaddec 261
acbd7bdd 262 StackTrace
efdaddec 263
acbd7bdd 264 Authentication
efdaddec 265
acbd7bdd 266 Session
267 Session::Store::FastMmap
268 Session::State::Cookie
269 /;
d442cc9f 270
636ba9f7 271B<Note:> As discussed in MoreCatalystBasics, different versions of
272C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods to load the plugins.
533fee73 273You can put the plugins in the C<use Catalyst> statement if you prefer.
94d8da41 274
905a3a26 275The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
276C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 278
905a3a26 279Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
280is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
281C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
282Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
283indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 284configuration (see below).
905a3a26 286Note that there are several options for
289is generally a good choice if you are on Unix; try
290L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File> if you
291are on Win32) -- consult
292L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
3533daff 293for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
294backed session store).
d442cc9f 295
297=head2 Configure Authentication
efdaddec 299There are a variety of way to provide configuration information to
301Here we will use
303because it automatically sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. Open
304C<lib/> and place the following text above the call to
307 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
308 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
309 default => {
310 class => 'SimpleDB',
311 user_model => 'DB::Users',
312 password_type => 'clear',
313 },
314 };
316We could have placed this configuration in C<myapp.conf>, but placing
317it in C<lib/> is probably a better place since it's not likely
318something that users of your application will want to change during
d442cc9f 320
1390ef0e 321
d442cc9f 322=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
324Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
326 $ script/ controller Login
327 $ script/ controller Logout
636ba9f7 329You could easily use a single controller here. For example, you could
330have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
331Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 332matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 333
636ba9f7 334Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>, locate the
335C<sub index :Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you
336are using an older version of Catalyst) that was automatically
337inserted by the helpers when we created the Login controller above,
fbbb9084 338and update the definition of C<sub index> to match:
d442cc9f 339
340 =head2 index
efdaddec 341
d442cc9f 342 Login logic
efdaddec 343
d442cc9f 344 =cut
efdaddec 345
ae492862 346 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 347 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 348
d442cc9f 349 # Get the username and password from form
350 my $username = $c->request->params->{username} || "";
351 my $password = $c->request->params->{password} || "";
efdaddec 352
d442cc9f 353 # If the username and password values were found in form
354 if ($username && $password) {
355 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 356 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 357 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 358 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 359 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
360 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 361 return;
362 } else {
363 # Set an error message
364 $c->stash->{error_msg} = "Bad username or password.";
365 }
366 }
efdaddec 367
d442cc9f 368 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
369 $c->stash->{template} = 'login.tt2';
370 }
372This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 373login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
374redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
375will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
376C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
f632e28b 377user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 378
636ba9f7 379Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
380however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons,
381and partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
382C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 383found page for the application.
ae492862 384
fbbb9084 385Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}>" here to
905a3a26 386specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
387actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the
388controller where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports
389arguments that allow relative and absolute paths to be defined, here
390we use an empty C<Path> definition to match on just the name of the
391controller itself. The method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make
ae492862 392the match even more specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier --
905a3a26 393this forces the match on I<only> C</login>, not
d442cc9f 394C</login/somethingelse>.
905a3a26 396Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 397C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> to match:
d442cc9f 398
399 =head2 index
efdaddec 400
d442cc9f 401 Logout logic
efdaddec 402
d442cc9f 403 =cut
efdaddec 404
ae492862 405 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 406 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 407
d442cc9f 408 # Clear the user's state
409 $c->logout;
efdaddec 410
d442cc9f 411 # Send the user to the starting point
412 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
413 }
905a3a26 415As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 416C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 417line of the C<sub index>.
420=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
422Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
424 [% META title = 'Login' %]
efdaddec 425
d442cc9f 426 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 427 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 428 <table>
429 <tr>
430 <td>Username:</td>
431 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
432 </tr>
433 <tr>
434 <td>Password:</td>
435 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
436 </tr>
437 <tr>
438 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
439 </tr>
440 </table>
441 </form>
444=head2 Add Valid User Check
446We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
447mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
448passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
449This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method (prior to Catalyst
450v5.66, this sort of thing would go in C<>, but starting in
451v5.66, the preferred location is C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>).
453Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> class file and insert
454the following method:
456 =head2 auto
efdaddec 457
d442cc9f 458 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
efdaddec 459
d442cc9f 460 =cut
efdaddec 461
d442cc9f 462 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 463 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 464 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
465 sub auto : Private {
466 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 467
d442cc9f 468 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 469 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 470 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
471 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 472 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 473 # added above.
474 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
475 return 1;
476 }
efdaddec 477
d442cc9f 478 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
479 if (!$c->user_exists) {
480 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
481 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
482 # Redirect the user to the login page
483 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
484 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
485 return 0;
486 }
efdaddec 487
d442cc9f 488 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
489 return 1;
490 }
636ba9f7 492As discussed in
493L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
494every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
495most specific controller will be called. By placing the
496authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
497C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> (or C<lib/>), it will be
498called for I<every> request that is received by the entire
0416017e 499application.
d442cc9f 500
502=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
504Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
505changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
506this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
507lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 509 ...
d442cc9f 510 <p>
511 [%
905a3a26 512 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 513 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
514 %]
8a7c5151 515 [% IF c.user_exists %]
516 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
517 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 518 [% ELSE %]
519 You need to log in to use this application.
520 [% END %]
521 [%#
522 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 523 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
524 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
525 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 526 comments.
527 %]
3533daff 528 </p>
d442cc9f 529
530Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
531"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
532page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
533authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
534use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
537=head2 Try Out Authentication
539Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
540running) and restart it:
542 $ script/
636ba9f7 544B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
545Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
546server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
acbd7bdd 547timestamps for cookies. You can quickly sync a Debian system by
548installing the "ntpdate" package:
550 sudo aptitude -y install ntpdate
552And then run the following command:
25ed8f40 553
acbd7bdd 554 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 555
acbd7bdd 556Or, depending on your firewall configuration:
558 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 560Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 561UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
562Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
563box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 564
636ba9f7 565Now trying going to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should
566be redirected to the login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload
567if necessary (the "You are already logged in" message should I<not>
568appear -- if it does, click the C<logout> button and try again). Note
569the C<***Root::auto User not found...> debug message in the
570development server output. Enter username C<test01> and password
1390ef0e 571C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book List page.
d442cc9f 572
573Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 574bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 575
576 <p>
8a7c5151 577 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
0416017e 578 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 579 </p>
905a3a26 581Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
582at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
583files without reloading the development server). Click the first link
584to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 585already logged in" message.
587Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
588You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
589need to log in to use this application."
efdaddec 594In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
595from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a
596random "salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack with
597dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 598
599B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
600tutorial will function normally.
fbbb9084 602Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
d442cc9f 603still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
604just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
efdaddec 605using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
d442cc9f 606between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
efdaddec 607easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
d442cc9f 608
efdaddec 610=head2 Install DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 611
efdaddec 612L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> provides features
613that can greatly simplify the maintenance of passwords. It's currently
614not available as a .deb package in the normal Debian repositories, so let's
615install it directly from CPAN:
d442cc9f 616
efdaddec 617 $ sudo cpan DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d0496197 618
d442cc9f 619
efdaddec 620=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 621
efdaddec 622Next, we can re-run the model helper to have it include
623L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> in all of the
624Result Classes it generates for us. Simply use the same command we
625saw in Chapters 3 and 4, but add C<,EncodedColumn> to the C<components>
d442cc9f 627
efdaddec 628 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
629 create=static components=TimeStamp,EncodedColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
d442cc9f 630
efdaddec 631If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
632includes EncodedColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look at
633C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> since that's the main class where we
634want to use hashed and salted passwords:
636 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "EncodedColumn", "Core");
639=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use EncodedColumn
641Open the file C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> and enter the following
642text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
643the closing "1;":
645 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 10-character salt
646 # with hex encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
647 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
648 'password' => {
649 data_type => "TEXT",
650 size => undef,
651 encode_column => 1,
652 encode_class => 'Digest',
653 encode_args => {salt_length => 10},
654 encode_check_method => 'check_password',
655 },
656 );
658This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password
659fields at the top of the Result Class file to now use EncodedColumn
660logic (C<encoded_column> is set to 1). C<encode_class> can be set to
661either C<Digest> to use
663or C<Crypt::Eksblowfish::Bcrypt> for
665C<encode_args> is then used to customize the type of Digest you
666selected. Here we only specified the size of the salt to use, but
667we could have also modified the hashing algorithm ('SHA-256' is
668the default) and the format to use ('base64' is the default, but
669'hex' and 'binary' are other options). To use these, you could
670change the C<encode_args> to something like:
672 encode_args => {algorithm => 'SHA-1',
673 format => 'hex',
674 salt_length => 10},
677=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
679Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted passwords
680into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the file
681C<> in your editor and enter the following text:
683 #!/usr/bin/perl
685 use strict;
686 use warnings;
688 use MyApp::Schema;
690 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
692 my @users = $schema->resultset('Users')->all;
694 foreach my $user (@users) {
695 $user->password('mypass');
696 $user->update;
697 }
699EncodedColumn lets us simple call C<$user->check_password($password)>
700to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
701above, call C<$user->update($new_password)> to update the hashed
702password stored for this user.
704Then run the following command:
706 $ perl -Ilib
708We had to use the C<-Ilib> arguement to tell perl to look under the
709C<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
711Then dump the users table to verify that it worked:
713 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from users"
714 1|test01|38d3974fa9e9263099f7bc2574284b2f55473a9bM=fwpX2NR8||Joe|Blow|1
715 2|test02|6ed8586587e53e0d7509b1cfed5df08feadc68cbMJlnPyPt0I||Jane|Doe|1
716 3|test03|af929a151340c6aed4d54d7e2651795d1ad2e2f7UW8dHoGv9z||No|Go|0
718As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the
719database. Also note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class
720model outside of your web application -- a very useful feature in many
724=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
726Edit C<lib/> and update it to match the following text (the only change
727is to the C<password_type> field):
729 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
730 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
731 default => {
732 class => 'SimpleDB',
733 user_model => 'DB::Users',
734 password_type => 'self_check',
735 },
736 };
738The use of C<self_check> will cause
739Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC to call the
740C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 741
1390ef0e 742
d442cc9f 743=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
745Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
746running) and restart it:
748 $ script/
750You should now be able to go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and
fbbb9084 751login as before. When done, click the "logout" link on the login page
d442cc9f 752(or point your browser at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 754
4b4d3884 757As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
758you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
759will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
760is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
761authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
762those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
763redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the L<Basic
764CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::BasicCRUD> chapter of the tutorial to
765take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 766
767First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 768to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
769has changed):
d442cc9f 770
905a3a26 771 =head2 delete
efdaddec 772
d442cc9f 773 Delete a book
efdaddec 774
d442cc9f 775 =cut
efdaddec 776
fbbb9084 777 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
778 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 779
fbbb9084 780 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
781 # with related 'book_authors' entries
782 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
efdaddec 783
d442cc9f 784 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
785 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
efdaddec 786
3533daff 787 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 788 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 789 }
1390ef0e 791Next, open C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 792flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 794 ...
d442cc9f 795 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 796 [%# Status and error messages %]
797 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
798 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
799 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
800 [% content %]
801 </div><!-- end content -->
802 ...
905a3a26 803
636ba9f7 804Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the
1390ef0e 805rest of the file intact -- the only change we made to the C<wrapper.tt2>
636ba9f7 806was to add "C<|| c.request.params.status_msg>" to the
1390ef0e 807C<E<lt>span class="message"E<gt>> line.
d442cc9f 808
810=head2 Try Out Flash
636ba9f7 812Restart the development server, log in, and then point your browser to
813L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
814several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
815"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 816"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 817
818B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
819I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
820exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
821the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
822after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
823L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session|Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
1390ef0e 826
3533daff 827=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
636ba9f7 829Although the a use of flash above works well, the
1390ef0e 830C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 831alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
1390ef0e 832copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your controller
905a3a26 833and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
fbbb9084 834forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
905a3a26 835set the value in C<lib/> by changing the default
3533daff 836C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
838 __PACKAGE__->config(
efdaddec 839 name => 'MyApp',
3533daff 840 session => {flash_to_stash => 1}
841 );
45d511e0 843B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 844
45d511e0 845 <session>
846 flash_to_stash 1
847 </session>
3533daff 848
905a3a26 849The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
850since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 851possibly breaking some of your code.
1390ef0e 853Then edit C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the C<status_msg> line
854to match the following:
3533daff 855
856 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
858Restart the development server and go to
905a3a26 859L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete another
3533daff 860of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should still
861maintain the status message across the redirect even though you are no
8a7c5151 862longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 863
d442cc9f 864
865=head1 AUTHOR
867Kennedy Clark, C<>
869Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The
870most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
82ab4bbf 871L<>.
d442cc9f 872
45c7830f 873Copyright 2006-2008, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License
95674086 874(L<>).