Require Pod::Simple which understands L<foo|url> in author mode. Move the Pod tests...
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / 05_Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
3ab6187c 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 8This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
3ab6187c 16L<Introduction|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>
d442cc9f 17
18=item 2
3ab6187c 20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::02_CatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 21
22=item 3
3ab6187c 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3ab6187c 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3ab6187c 32B<05_Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3ab6187c 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3ab6187c 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::07_Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3ab6187c 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::08_Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3ab6187c 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::09_AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3ab6187c 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::10_Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
4b4d3884 61Chapter 6).
d442cc9f 62
4b4d3884 63This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
d442cc9f 64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
3ab6187c 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
fbbb9084 70
d442cc9f 71=head1 BASIC AUTHENTICATION
73This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
77=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
79First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
80add the role information here although it will not be used until the
4b4d3884 81authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by opening
d442cc9f 82C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
84 --
3b1fa91b 85 -- Add user and role tables, along with a many-to-many join table
d442cc9f 86 --
3b1fa91b 87 CREATE TABLE user (
d442cc9f 88 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
89 username TEXT,
90 password TEXT,
91 email_address TEXT,
92 first_name TEXT,
93 last_name TEXT,
94 active INTEGER
95 );
3b1fa91b 96 CREATE TABLE role (
d442cc9f 97 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
98 role TEXT
99 );
3b1fa91b 100 CREATE TABLE user_role (
d442cc9f 101 user_id INTEGER,
102 role_id INTEGER,
103 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
104 );
105 --
106 -- Load up some initial test data
107 --
3b1fa91b 108 INSERT INTO user VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', '', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
109 INSERT INTO user VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', '', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
110 INSERT INTO user VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', '', 'No', 'Go', 0);
111 INSERT INTO role VALUES (1, 'user');
112 INSERT INTO role VALUES (2, 'admin');
113 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 1);
114 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 2);
115 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (2, 1);
116 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (3, 1);
d442cc9f 117
118Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
120 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
444d6b27 122
d442cc9f 123=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 125Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
126the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
127option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 128
acbd7bdd 129 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
130 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
1390ef0e 131 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
132 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
133 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
134 Schema dump completed.
135 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/"
136 $
acbd7bdd 137 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3b1fa91b 138
d442cc9f 139
905a3a26 140Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific result source
acbd7bdd 141files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 142importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
143files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
191dee29 144MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 145enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 146
3b1fa91b 147Speaking of "hand-editted enhancements," we should now add
905a3a26 148relationship information to the three new result source files. Edit
149each of these files and add the following information between the C<#
3533daff 150DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing C<1;>:
d442cc9f 151
3b1fa91b 152C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 153
d442cc9f 154 #
155 # Set relationships:
156 #
efdaddec 157
d442cc9f 158 # has_many():
159 # args:
160 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
161 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
1435672d 162 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table (aka, foreign key in peer table)
2a6eb5f9 163 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_roles => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::UserRole', 'user_id');
efdaddec 164
3533daff 165 # many_to_many():
166 # args:
167 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 168 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
169 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 170 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
2a6eb5f9 171 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'map_user_roles', 'role');
d442cc9f 172
3b1fa91b 174C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 175
d442cc9f 176 #
177 # Set relationships:
178 #
efdaddec 179
d442cc9f 180 # has_many():
181 # args:
182 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
183 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
1435672d 184 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table (aka, foreign key in peer table)
2a6eb5f9 185 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_roles => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::UserRole', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 186
3b1fa91b 188C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 189
d442cc9f 190 #
191 # Set relationships:
192 #
efdaddec 193
d442cc9f 194 # belongs_to():
195 # args:
196 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
197 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
198 # 3) Column name in *this* table
3b1fa91b 199 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(user => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::User', 'user_id');
efdaddec 200
d442cc9f 201 # belongs_to():
202 # args:
203 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
204 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
205 # 3) Column name in *this* table
3b1fa91b 206 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(role => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::Role', 'role_id');
3533daff 207
905a3a26 208The code for these three sets of updates is obviously very similar to
3b1fa91b 209the edits we made to the C<Book>, C<Author>, and C<BookAuthor>
4b4d3884 210classes created in Chapter 3.
3533daff 211
636ba9f7 212Note that we do not need to make any change to the
213C<lib/MyApp/> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all
214of the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds in below the
215C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our
acbd7bdd 216new table information.
d442cc9f 217
219=head2 Sanity-Check Reload of Development Server
905a3a26 221We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want
222to do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Press
223C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still running)
3533daff 224and restart it:
d442cc9f 225
226 $ script/
228Look for the three new model objects in the startup debug output:
230 ...
231 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
232 | Class | Type |
233 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
234 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
235 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 236 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
237 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
3b1fa91b 238 | MyApp::Model::DB::Book | class |
239 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthor | class |
240 | MyApp::Model::DB::Role | class |
241 | MyApp::Model::DB::User | class |
242 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRole | class |
d442cc9f 243 | MyApp::View::TT | instance |
244 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
245 ...
acbd7bdd 247Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded"
3533daff 248by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 249
251=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 253Edit C<lib/> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 254C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 255
acbd7bdd 256 # Load plugins
2a6eb5f9 257 use Catalyst qw/
258 -Debug
3b1fa91b 259 ConfigLoader
260 Static::Simple
efdaddec 261
3b1fa91b 262 StackTrace
efdaddec 263
3b1fa91b 264 Authentication
efdaddec 265
3b1fa91b 266 Session
267 Session::Store::FastMmap
268 Session::State::Cookie
269 /;
d442cc9f 270
636ba9f7 271B<Note:> As discussed in MoreCatalystBasics, different versions of
444d6b27 272C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods to load the plugins,
273but we are going to use the current Catalyst 5.8X practice of putting
274them on the C<use Catalyst> line.
94d8da41 275
905a3a26 276The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
277C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 279
905a3a26 280Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
281is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
282C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
283Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
284indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 285configuration (see below).
3b1fa91b 287Make sure you include the additional plugins as new dependencies in
288the Makefile.PL file something like this:
290 requires (
291 'Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication' => '0',
292 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session' => '0',
293 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::FastMmap' => '0',
294 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie' => '0',
295 );
905a3a26 297Note that there are several options for
300is generally a good choice if you are on Unix; try
301L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File> if you
302are on Win32) -- consult
303L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
3533daff 304for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
305backed session store).
d442cc9f 306
308=head2 Configure Authentication
3b1fa91b 310There are a variety of ways to provide configuration information to
efdaddec 311L<Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication|Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication>.
312Here we will use
314because it automatically sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. Open
315C<lib/> and place the following text above the call to
318 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
319 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
320 default => {
321 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 322 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 323 password_type => 'clear',
324 },
325 };
327We could have placed this configuration in C<myapp.conf>, but placing
328it in C<lib/> is probably a better place since it's not likely
329something that users of your application will want to change during
c3cf3bc3 330deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave C<class> and
331C<user_model> defined in C<lib/> as we show above, but place
332C<password_type> in C<myapp.conf> to allow the type of password to be
333easily modified during deployment). We will stick with putting
334all of the authentication-related configuration in C<lib/>
335for the tutorial, but if you wish to use C<myapp.conf>, just convert
336to the following code:
338 <Plugin::Authentication>
c3cf3bc3 339 <default>
43707053 340 password_type clear
3b1fa91b 341 user_model DB::User
c3cf3bc3 342 class SimpleDB
343 </default>
344 </Plugin::Authentication>
346B<TIP:> Here is a short script that will dump the contents of
347C<MyApp->config> to L<Config::General|Config::General> format in
350 $ perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
351 Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'
d442cc9f 352
c4fa597d 353B<NOTE:> Because we are using SimpleDB along with a database layout
354that complies with its default assumptions, we don't need to specify
355the names of the columns where our username and password information
356is stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB"). That being said,
87236f03 357SimpleDB lets you specify that type of information if you need to.
c4fa597d 358Take a look at
360for details.
1390ef0e 362
d442cc9f 363=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
365Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
367 $ script/ controller Login
368 $ script/ controller Logout
636ba9f7 370You could easily use a single controller here. For example, you could
371have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
372Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 373matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 374
636ba9f7 375Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>, locate the
376C<sub index :Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you
377are using an older version of Catalyst) that was automatically
378inserted by the helpers when we created the Login controller above,
fbbb9084 379and update the definition of C<sub index> to match:
d442cc9f 380
381 =head2 index
efdaddec 382
d442cc9f 383 Login logic
efdaddec 384
d442cc9f 385 =cut
efdaddec 386
ae492862 387 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 388 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 389
d442cc9f 390 # Get the username and password from form
391 my $username = $c->request->params->{username} || "";
392 my $password = $c->request->params->{password} || "";
efdaddec 393
d442cc9f 394 # If the username and password values were found in form
444d6b27 395 if (defined($username) && defined($password)) {
d442cc9f 396 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 397 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 398 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 399 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 400 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
401 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 402 return;
403 } else {
404 # Set an error message
405 $c->stash->{error_msg} = "Bad username or password.";
406 }
407 }
efdaddec 408
d442cc9f 409 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
410 $c->stash->{template} = 'login.tt2';
411 }
3b1fa91b 413Be sure to remove the C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Login in Login.');>
414line of the C<sub index>.
d442cc9f 416This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 417login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
418redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
419will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
420C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
f632e28b 421user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 422
636ba9f7 423Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
424however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons,
425and partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
426C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 427found page for the application.
ae492862 428
fbbb9084 429Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}>" here to
905a3a26 430specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
431actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the
432controller where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports
433arguments that allow relative and absolute paths to be defined, here
434we use an empty C<Path> definition to match on just the name of the
435controller itself. The method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make
ae492862 436the match even more specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier --
905a3a26 437this forces the match on I<only> C</login>, not
d442cc9f 438C</login/somethingelse>.
905a3a26 440Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 441C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> to match:
d442cc9f 442
443 =head2 index
efdaddec 444
d442cc9f 445 Logout logic
efdaddec 446
d442cc9f 447 =cut
efdaddec 448
ae492862 449 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 450 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 451
d442cc9f 452 # Clear the user's state
453 $c->logout;
efdaddec 454
d442cc9f 455 # Send the user to the starting point
456 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
457 }
905a3a26 459As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 460C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 461line of the C<sub index>.
464=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
466Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
468 [% META title = 'Login' %]
efdaddec 469
d442cc9f 470 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 471 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 472 <table>
473 <tr>
474 <td>Username:</td>
475 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
476 </tr>
477 <tr>
478 <td>Password:</td>
479 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
480 </tr>
481 <tr>
482 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
483 </tr>
484 </table>
485 </form>
488=head2 Add Valid User Check
490We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
491mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
492passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
444d6b27 493This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method in
d442cc9f 495
496Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> class file and insert
497the following method:
499 =head2 auto
efdaddec 500
d442cc9f 501 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
efdaddec 502
d442cc9f 503 =cut
efdaddec 504
d442cc9f 505 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 506 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 507 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
508 sub auto : Private {
509 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 510
d442cc9f 511 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 512 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 513 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
514 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 515 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 516 # added above.
517 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
518 return 1;
519 }
efdaddec 520
d442cc9f 521 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
522 if (!$c->user_exists) {
523 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
524 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
525 # Redirect the user to the login page
526 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
527 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
528 return 0;
529 }
efdaddec 530
d442cc9f 531 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
532 return 1;
533 }
636ba9f7 535As discussed in
3ab6187c 536L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
636ba9f7 537every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
538most specific controller will be called. By placing the
539authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
540C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> (or C<lib/>), it will be
541called for I<every> request that is received by the entire
0416017e 542application.
d442cc9f 543
545=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
547Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
548changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
549this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
550lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 552 ...
d442cc9f 553 <p>
554 [%
905a3a26 555 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 556 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
557 %]
8a7c5151 558 [% IF c.user_exists %]
559 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
560 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 561 [% ELSE %]
562 You need to log in to use this application.
563 [% END %]
564 [%#
565 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 566 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
567 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
568 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 569 comments.
570 %]
3533daff 571 </p>
d442cc9f 572
573Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
574"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
575page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
576authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
577use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
580=head2 Try Out Authentication
582Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
583running) and restart it:
585 $ script/
636ba9f7 587B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
588Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
589server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
acbd7bdd 590timestamps for cookies. You can quickly sync a Debian system by
591installing the "ntpdate" package:
593 sudo aptitude -y install ntpdate
595And then run the following command:
25ed8f40 596
acbd7bdd 597 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 598
acbd7bdd 599Or, depending on your firewall configuration:
601 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 603Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 604UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
605Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
606box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 607
636ba9f7 608Now trying going to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should
609be redirected to the login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload
610if necessary (the "You are already logged in" message should I<not>
611appear -- if it does, click the C<logout> button and try again). Note
612the C<***Root::auto User not found...> debug message in the
613development server output. Enter username C<test01> and password
1390ef0e 614C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book List page.
d442cc9f 615
616Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 617bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 618
619 <p>
8a7c5151 620 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
0416017e 621 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 622 </p>
905a3a26 624Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
625at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
626files without reloading the development server). Click the first link
627to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 628already logged in" message.
630Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
631You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
632need to log in to use this application."
efdaddec 637In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
638from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a
639random "salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack with
640dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 641
642B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
643tutorial will function normally.
fbbb9084 645Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
d442cc9f 646still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
647just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
efdaddec 648using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
d442cc9f 649between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
efdaddec 650easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
d442cc9f 651
efdaddec 653=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 654
efdaddec 655Next, we can re-run the model helper to have it include
656L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> in all of the
657Result Classes it generates for us. Simply use the same command we
658saw in Chapters 3 and 4, but add C<,EncodedColumn> to the C<components>
d442cc9f 660
efdaddec 661 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
662 create=static components=TimeStamp,EncodedColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
d442cc9f 663
efdaddec 664If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
665includes EncodedColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look at
3b1fa91b 666C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> since that's the main class where we
efdaddec 667want to use hashed and salted passwords:
669 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "EncodedColumn", "Core");
672=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use EncodedColumn
3b1fa91b 674Open the file C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> and enter the following
efdaddec 675text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
676the closing "1;":
678 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 10-character salt
679 # with hex encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
680 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
681 'password' => {
682 data_type => "TEXT",
683 size => undef,
684 encode_column => 1,
685 encode_class => 'Digest',
686 encode_args => {salt_length => 10},
687 encode_check_method => 'check_password',
688 },
689 );
691This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password
692fields at the top of the Result Class file to now use EncodedColumn
693logic (C<encoded_column> is set to 1). C<encode_class> can be set to
694either C<Digest> to use
696or C<Crypt::Eksblowfish::Bcrypt> for
698C<encode_args> is then used to customize the type of Digest you
699selected. Here we only specified the size of the salt to use, but
700we could have also modified the hashing algorithm ('SHA-256' is
701the default) and the format to use ('base64' is the default, but
702'hex' and 'binary' are other options). To use these, you could
703change the C<encode_args> to something like:
705 encode_args => {algorithm => 'SHA-1',
706 format => 'hex',
707 salt_length => 10},
710=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
712Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted passwords
713into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the file
714C<> in your editor and enter the following text:
716 #!/usr/bin/perl
718 use strict;
719 use warnings;
721 use MyApp::Schema;
723 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
3b1fa91b 725 my @users = $schema->resultset('User')->all;
efdaddec 726
727 foreach my $user (@users) {
728 $user->password('mypass');
729 $user->update;
730 }
732EncodedColumn lets us simple call C<$user->check_password($password)>
733to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
734above, call C<$user->update($new_password)> to update the hashed
735password stored for this user.
737Then run the following command:
2a6eb5f9 739 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
efdaddec 740
c12b0d35 741We had to use the C<-Ilib> argument to tell perl to look under the
efdaddec 742C<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
2a6eb5f9 744The DBIC_TRACE output should show that the update worked:
746 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
cc0ef55e 747 SELECT, me.username, me.password, me.email_address,
748 me.first_name, me.last_name, FROM user me:
749 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
750 'oXiyAcGOjowz7ISUhpIm1IrS8AxSZ9r4jNjpX9VnVeQmN6GRtRKTz', '1'
751 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
752 'PmyEPrkB8EGwvaF/DvJm7LIfxoZARjv8ygFIR7pc1gEA1OfwHGNzs', '2'
753 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
754 'h7CS1Fm9UCs4hjcbu2im0HumaHCJUq4Uriac+SQgdUMUfFSoOrz3c', '3'
2a6eb5f9 755
756But we can further confirm our actions by dumping the users table:
efdaddec 757
3b1fa91b 758 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from user"
efdaddec 759 1|test01|38d3974fa9e9263099f7bc2574284b2f55473a9bM=fwpX2NR8||Joe|Blow|1
760 2|test02|6ed8586587e53e0d7509b1cfed5df08feadc68cbMJlnPyPt0I||Jane|Doe|1
761 3|test03|af929a151340c6aed4d54d7e2651795d1ad2e2f7UW8dHoGv9z||No|Go|0
763As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the
444d6b27 764database (not only are the hashes stored, but every hash is different
765even though the passwords are the same because of the added "salt"
766value). Also note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class
efdaddec 767model outside of your web application -- a very useful feature in many
771=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
cc0ef55e 773Edit C<lib/> and update it to match the following text (the
774only change is to the C<password_type> field):
efdaddec 775
776 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
777 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
778 default => {
779 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 780 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 781 password_type => 'self_check',
782 },
783 };
785The use of C<self_check> will cause
786Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC to call the
787C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 788
1390ef0e 789
d442cc9f 790=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
792Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
793running) and restart it:
795 $ script/
797You should now be able to go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and
fbbb9084 798login as before. When done, click the "logout" link on the login page
d442cc9f 799(or point your browser at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 801
4b4d3884 804As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
805you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
806will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
807is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
808authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
809those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
810redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the L<Basic
3ab6187c 811CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD> chapter of the tutorial to
4b4d3884 812take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 813
814First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 815to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
816has changed):
d442cc9f 817
905a3a26 818 =head2 delete
efdaddec 819
d442cc9f 820 Delete a book
efdaddec 821
d442cc9f 822 =cut
efdaddec 823
fbbb9084 824 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
825 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 826
fbbb9084 827 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
828 # with related 'book_authors' entries
829 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
efdaddec 830
d442cc9f 831 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
832 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
efdaddec 833
3533daff 834 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 835 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 836 }
1390ef0e 838Next, open C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 839flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 841 ...
d442cc9f 842 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 843 [%# Status and error messages %]
844 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
845 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
846 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
847 [% content %]
848 </div><!-- end content -->
849 ...
905a3a26 850
636ba9f7 851Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the
cc0ef55e 852rest of the file intact -- the only change we made to replace
853"|| c.request.params.status_msg" with "c.flash.status_msg" in the
854C<< <span class="message"> >> line.
d442cc9f 855
857=head2 Try Out Flash
636ba9f7 859Restart the development server, log in, and then point your browser to
860L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
861several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
862"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 863"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 864
865B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
866I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
867exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
868the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
869after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
870L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session|Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
1390ef0e 873
3533daff 874=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
636ba9f7 876Although the a use of flash above works well, the
1390ef0e 877C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 878alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
1390ef0e 879copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your controller
905a3a26 880and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
fbbb9084 881forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
905a3a26 882set the value in C<lib/> by changing the default
3533daff 883C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
885 __PACKAGE__->config(
efdaddec 886 name => 'MyApp',
444d6b27 887 session => {flash_to_stash => 1},
3533daff 888 );
45d511e0 890B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 891
45d511e0 892 <session>
893 flash_to_stash 1
894 </session>
3533daff 895
905a3a26 896The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
897since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 898possibly breaking some of your code.
1390ef0e 900Then edit C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the C<status_msg> line
901to match the following:
3533daff 902
903 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
905Restart the development server and go to
905a3a26 906L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete another
3533daff 907of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should still
908maintain the status message across the redirect even though you are no
8a7c5151 909longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 910
d442cc9f 911
912=head1 AUTHOR
914Kennedy Clark, C<>
916Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The
917most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
59884771 918L<>.
d442cc9f 919
45c7830f 920Copyright 2006-2008, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License
95674086 921(L<>).