Fix typos in appendix emacs note and misplaced quote in 07_Debugging.pod - Thanks...
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / 05_Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
3ab6187c 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 8This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
3ab6187c 16L<Introduction|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>
d442cc9f 17
18=item 2
3ab6187c 20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::02_CatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 21
22=item 3
3ab6187c 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3ab6187c 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3ab6187c 32B<05_Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3ab6187c 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3ab6187c 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::07_Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3ab6187c 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::08_Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3ab6187c 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::09_AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3ab6187c 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::10_Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
4b4d3884 61Chapter 6).
d442cc9f 62
4b4d3884 63This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
d442cc9f 64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
3ab6187c 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
fbbb9084 70
d442cc9f 71=head1 BASIC AUTHENTICATION
73This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
77=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
79First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
80add the role information here although it will not be used until the
4b4d3884 81authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by opening
d442cc9f 82C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
84 --
3b1fa91b 85 -- Add user and role tables, along with a many-to-many join table
d442cc9f 86 --
3b1fa91b 87 CREATE TABLE user (
d442cc9f 88 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
89 username TEXT,
90 password TEXT,
91 email_address TEXT,
92 first_name TEXT,
93 last_name TEXT,
94 active INTEGER
95 );
3b1fa91b 96 CREATE TABLE role (
d442cc9f 97 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
98 role TEXT
99 );
3b1fa91b 100 CREATE TABLE user_role (
d442cc9f 101 user_id INTEGER,
102 role_id INTEGER,
103 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
104 );
105 --
106 -- Load up some initial test data
107 --
3b1fa91b 108 INSERT INTO user VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', '', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
109 INSERT INTO user VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', '', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
110 INSERT INTO user VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', '', 'No', 'Go', 0);
111 INSERT INTO role VALUES (1, 'user');
112 INSERT INTO role VALUES (2, 'admin');
113 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 1);
114 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 2);
115 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (2, 1);
116 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (3, 1);
d442cc9f 117
118Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
120 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
d442cc9f 122=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 124Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
125the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
126option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 127
acbd7bdd 128 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
129 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
1390ef0e 130 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
131 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
132 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
133 Schema dump completed.
134 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/"
135 $
acbd7bdd 136 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3b1fa91b 137
d442cc9f 138
905a3a26 139Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific result source
acbd7bdd 140files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 141importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
142files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
191dee29 143MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 144enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 145
3b1fa91b 146Speaking of "hand-editted enhancements," we should now add
905a3a26 147relationship information to the three new result source files. Edit
148each of these files and add the following information between the C<#
3533daff 149DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing C<1;>:
d442cc9f 150
3b1fa91b 151C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 152
d442cc9f 153 #
154 # Set relationships:
155 #
efdaddec 156
d442cc9f 157 # has_many():
158 # args:
159 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
160 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
1435672d 161 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table (aka, foreign key in peer table)
2a6eb5f9 162 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_roles => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::UserRole', 'user_id');
efdaddec 163
3533daff 164 # many_to_many():
165 # args:
166 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 167 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
168 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 169 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
2a6eb5f9 170 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'map_user_roles', 'role');
d442cc9f 171
3b1fa91b 173C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 174
d442cc9f 175 #
176 # Set relationships:
177 #
efdaddec 178
d442cc9f 179 # has_many():
180 # args:
181 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
182 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
1435672d 183 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table (aka, foreign key in peer table)
2a6eb5f9 184 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_roles => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::UserRole', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 185
3b1fa91b 187C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/>:
d442cc9f 188
d442cc9f 189 #
190 # Set relationships:
191 #
efdaddec 192
d442cc9f 193 # belongs_to():
194 # args:
195 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
196 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
197 # 3) Column name in *this* table
3b1fa91b 198 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(user => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::User', 'user_id');
efdaddec 199
d442cc9f 200 # belongs_to():
201 # args:
202 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
203 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
204 # 3) Column name in *this* table
3b1fa91b 205 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(role => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::Role', 'role_id');
3533daff 206
905a3a26 207The code for these three sets of updates is obviously very similar to
3b1fa91b 208the edits we made to the C<Book>, C<Author>, and C<BookAuthor>
4b4d3884 209classes created in Chapter 3.
3533daff 210
636ba9f7 211Note that we do not need to make any change to the
212C<lib/MyApp/> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all
213of the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds in below the
214C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our
acbd7bdd 215new table information.
d442cc9f 216
218=head2 Sanity-Check Reload of Development Server
905a3a26 220We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want
221to do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Press
222C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still running)
3533daff 223and restart it:
d442cc9f 224
225 $ script/
227Look for the three new model objects in the startup debug output:
229 ...
230 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
231 | Class | Type |
232 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
233 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
234 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 235 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
236 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
3b1fa91b 237 | MyApp::Model::DB::Book | class |
238 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthor | class |
239 | MyApp::Model::DB::Role | class |
240 | MyApp::Model::DB::User | class |
241 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRole | class |
d442cc9f 242 | MyApp::View::TT | instance |
243 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
244 ...
acbd7bdd 246Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded"
3533daff 247by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 248
250=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 252Edit C<lib/> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 253C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 254
acbd7bdd 255 # Load plugins
2a6eb5f9 256 use Catalyst qw/
257 -Debug
3b1fa91b 258 ConfigLoader
259 Static::Simple
efdaddec 260
3b1fa91b 261 StackTrace
efdaddec 262
3b1fa91b 263 Authentication
efdaddec 264
3b1fa91b 265 Session
266 Session::Store::FastMmap
267 Session::State::Cookie
268 /;
d442cc9f 269
636ba9f7 270B<Note:> As discussed in MoreCatalystBasics, different versions of
271C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods to load the plugins.
533fee73 272You can put the plugins in the C<use Catalyst> statement if you prefer.
94d8da41 273
905a3a26 274The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
275C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 277
905a3a26 278Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
279is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
280C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
281Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
282indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 283configuration (see below).
3b1fa91b 285Make sure you include the additional plugins as new dependencies in
286the Makefile.PL file something like this:
288 requires (
289 'Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication' => '0',
290 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session' => '0',
291 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::FastMmap' => '0',
292 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie' => '0',
293 );
905a3a26 295Note that there are several options for
298is generally a good choice if you are on Unix; try
299L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File> if you
300are on Win32) -- consult
301L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
3533daff 302for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
303backed session store).
d442cc9f 304
306=head2 Configure Authentication
3b1fa91b 308There are a variety of ways to provide configuration information to
efdaddec 309L<Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication|Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication>.
310Here we will use
312because it automatically sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. Open
313C<lib/> and place the following text above the call to
316 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
317 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
318 default => {
319 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 320 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 321 password_type => 'clear',
322 },
323 };
325We could have placed this configuration in C<myapp.conf>, but placing
326it in C<lib/> is probably a better place since it's not likely
327something that users of your application will want to change during
c3cf3bc3 328deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave C<class> and
329C<user_model> defined in C<lib/> as we show above, but place
330C<password_type> in C<myapp.conf> to allow the type of password to be
331easily modified during deployment). We will stick with putting
332all of the authentication-related configuration in C<lib/>
333for the tutorial, but if you wish to use C<myapp.conf>, just convert
334to the following code:
336 <Plugin::Authentication>
337 use_session 1
338 <default>
339 password_type self_check
3b1fa91b 340 user_model DB::User
c3cf3bc3 341 class SimpleDB
342 </default>
343 </Plugin::Authentication>
345B<TIP:> Here is a short script that will dump the contents of
346C<MyApp->config> to L<Config::General|Config::General> format in
349 $ perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
350 Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'
d442cc9f 351
c4fa597d 352B<NOTE:> Because we are using SimpleDB along with a database layout
353that complies with its default assumptions, we don't need to specify
354the names of the columns where our username and password information
355is stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB"). That being said,
87236f03 356SimpleDB lets you specify that type of information if you need to.
c4fa597d 357Take a look at
359for details.
1390ef0e 361
d442cc9f 362=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
364Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
366 $ script/ controller Login
367 $ script/ controller Logout
636ba9f7 369You could easily use a single controller here. For example, you could
370have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
371Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 372matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 373
636ba9f7 374Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>, locate the
375C<sub index :Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you
376are using an older version of Catalyst) that was automatically
377inserted by the helpers when we created the Login controller above,
fbbb9084 378and update the definition of C<sub index> to match:
d442cc9f 379
380 =head2 index
efdaddec 381
d442cc9f 382 Login logic
efdaddec 383
d442cc9f 384 =cut
efdaddec 385
ae492862 386 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 387 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 388
d442cc9f 389 # Get the username and password from form
390 my $username = $c->request->params->{username} || "";
391 my $password = $c->request->params->{password} || "";
efdaddec 392
d442cc9f 393 # If the username and password values were found in form
394 if ($username && $password) {
395 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 396 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 397 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 398 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 399 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
400 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 401 return;
402 } else {
403 # Set an error message
404 $c->stash->{error_msg} = "Bad username or password.";
405 }
406 }
efdaddec 407
d442cc9f 408 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
409 $c->stash->{template} = 'login.tt2';
410 }
3b1fa91b 412Be sure to remove the C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Login in Login.');>
413line of the C<sub index>.
d442cc9f 415This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 416login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
417redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
418will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
419C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
f632e28b 420user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 421
636ba9f7 422Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
423however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons,
424and partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
425C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 426found page for the application.
ae492862 427
fbbb9084 428Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}>" here to
905a3a26 429specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
430actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the
431controller where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports
432arguments that allow relative and absolute paths to be defined, here
433we use an empty C<Path> definition to match on just the name of the
434controller itself. The method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make
ae492862 435the match even more specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier --
905a3a26 436this forces the match on I<only> C</login>, not
d442cc9f 437C</login/somethingelse>.
905a3a26 439Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 440C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> to match:
d442cc9f 441
442 =head2 index
efdaddec 443
d442cc9f 444 Logout logic
efdaddec 445
d442cc9f 446 =cut
efdaddec 447
ae492862 448 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 449 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 450
d442cc9f 451 # Clear the user's state
452 $c->logout;
efdaddec 453
d442cc9f 454 # Send the user to the starting point
455 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
456 }
905a3a26 458As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 459C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 460line of the C<sub index>.
463=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
465Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
467 [% META title = 'Login' %]
efdaddec 468
d442cc9f 469 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 470 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 471 <table>
472 <tr>
473 <td>Username:</td>
474 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
475 </tr>
476 <tr>
477 <td>Password:</td>
478 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
479 </tr>
480 <tr>
481 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
482 </tr>
483 </table>
484 </form>
487=head2 Add Valid User Check
489We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
490mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
491passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
492This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method (prior to Catalyst
493v5.66, this sort of thing would go in C<>, but starting in
494v5.66, the preferred location is C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>).
496Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> class file and insert
497the following method:
499 =head2 auto
efdaddec 500
d442cc9f 501 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
efdaddec 502
d442cc9f 503 =cut
efdaddec 504
d442cc9f 505 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 506 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 507 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
508 sub auto : Private {
509 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 510
d442cc9f 511 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 512 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 513 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
514 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 515 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 516 # added above.
517 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
518 return 1;
519 }
efdaddec 520
d442cc9f 521 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
522 if (!$c->user_exists) {
523 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
524 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
525 # Redirect the user to the login page
526 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
527 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
528 return 0;
529 }
efdaddec 530
d442cc9f 531 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
532 return 1;
533 }
636ba9f7 535As discussed in
3ab6187c 536L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
636ba9f7 537every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
538most specific controller will be called. By placing the
539authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
540C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> (or C<lib/>), it will be
541called for I<every> request that is received by the entire
0416017e 542application.
d442cc9f 543
545=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
547Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
548changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
549this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
550lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 552 ...
d442cc9f 553 <p>
554 [%
905a3a26 555 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 556 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
557 %]
8a7c5151 558 [% IF c.user_exists %]
559 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
560 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 561 [% ELSE %]
562 You need to log in to use this application.
563 [% END %]
564 [%#
565 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 566 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
567 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
568 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 569 comments.
570 %]
3533daff 571 </p>
d442cc9f 572
573Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
574"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
575page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
576authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
577use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
580=head2 Try Out Authentication
582Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
583running) and restart it:
585 $ script/
636ba9f7 587B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
588Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
589server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
acbd7bdd 590timestamps for cookies. You can quickly sync a Debian system by
591installing the "ntpdate" package:
593 sudo aptitude -y install ntpdate
595And then run the following command:
25ed8f40 596
acbd7bdd 597 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 598
acbd7bdd 599Or, depending on your firewall configuration:
601 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 603Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 604UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
605Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
606box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 607
636ba9f7 608Now trying going to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should
609be redirected to the login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload
610if necessary (the "You are already logged in" message should I<not>
611appear -- if it does, click the C<logout> button and try again). Note
612the C<***Root::auto User not found...> debug message in the
613development server output. Enter username C<test01> and password
1390ef0e 614C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book List page.
d442cc9f 615
616Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 617bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 618
619 <p>
8a7c5151 620 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
0416017e 621 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 622 </p>
905a3a26 624Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
625at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
626files without reloading the development server). Click the first link
627to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 628already logged in" message.
630Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
631You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
632need to log in to use this application."
efdaddec 637In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
638from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a
639random "salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack with
640dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 641
642B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
643tutorial will function normally.
fbbb9084 645Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
d442cc9f 646still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
647just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
efdaddec 648using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
d442cc9f 649between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
efdaddec 650easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
d442cc9f 651
efdaddec 653=head2 Install DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 654
efdaddec 655L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> provides features
656that can greatly simplify the maintenance of passwords. It's currently
657not available as a .deb package in the normal Debian repositories, so let's
658install it directly from CPAN:
d442cc9f 659
efdaddec 660 $ sudo cpan DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d0496197 661
d442cc9f 662
efdaddec 663=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 664
efdaddec 665Next, we can re-run the model helper to have it include
666L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> in all of the
667Result Classes it generates for us. Simply use the same command we
668saw in Chapters 3 and 4, but add C<,EncodedColumn> to the C<components>
d442cc9f 670
efdaddec 671 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
672 create=static components=TimeStamp,EncodedColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
d442cc9f 673
efdaddec 674If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
675includes EncodedColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look at
3b1fa91b 676C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> since that's the main class where we
efdaddec 677want to use hashed and salted passwords:
679 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "EncodedColumn", "Core");
682=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use EncodedColumn
3b1fa91b 684Open the file C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> and enter the following
efdaddec 685text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
686the closing "1;":
688 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 10-character salt
689 # with hex encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
690 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
691 'password' => {
692 data_type => "TEXT",
693 size => undef,
694 encode_column => 1,
695 encode_class => 'Digest',
696 encode_args => {salt_length => 10},
697 encode_check_method => 'check_password',
698 },
699 );
701This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password
702fields at the top of the Result Class file to now use EncodedColumn
703logic (C<encoded_column> is set to 1). C<encode_class> can be set to
704either C<Digest> to use
706or C<Crypt::Eksblowfish::Bcrypt> for
708C<encode_args> is then used to customize the type of Digest you
709selected. Here we only specified the size of the salt to use, but
710we could have also modified the hashing algorithm ('SHA-256' is
711the default) and the format to use ('base64' is the default, but
712'hex' and 'binary' are other options). To use these, you could
713change the C<encode_args> to something like:
715 encode_args => {algorithm => 'SHA-1',
716 format => 'hex',
717 salt_length => 10},
720=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
722Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted passwords
723into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the file
724C<> in your editor and enter the following text:
726 #!/usr/bin/perl
728 use strict;
729 use warnings;
731 use MyApp::Schema;
733 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
3b1fa91b 735 my @users = $schema->resultset('User')->all;
efdaddec 736
737 foreach my $user (@users) {
738 $user->password('mypass');
739 $user->update;
740 }
742EncodedColumn lets us simple call C<$user->check_password($password)>
743to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
744above, call C<$user->update($new_password)> to update the hashed
745password stored for this user.
747Then run the following command:
2a6eb5f9 749 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
efdaddec 750
751We had to use the C<-Ilib> arguement to tell perl to look under the
752C<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
2a6eb5f9 754The DBIC_TRACE output should show that the update worked:
756 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
cc0ef55e 757 SELECT, me.username, me.password, me.email_address,
758 me.first_name, me.last_name, FROM user me:
759 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
760 'oXiyAcGOjowz7ISUhpIm1IrS8AxSZ9r4jNjpX9VnVeQmN6GRtRKTz', '1'
761 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
762 'PmyEPrkB8EGwvaF/DvJm7LIfxoZARjv8ygFIR7pc1gEA1OfwHGNzs', '2'
763 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
764 'h7CS1Fm9UCs4hjcbu2im0HumaHCJUq4Uriac+SQgdUMUfFSoOrz3c', '3'
2a6eb5f9 765
766But we can further confirm our actions by dumping the users table:
efdaddec 767
3b1fa91b 768 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from user"
efdaddec 769 1|test01|38d3974fa9e9263099f7bc2574284b2f55473a9bM=fwpX2NR8||Joe|Blow|1
770 2|test02|6ed8586587e53e0d7509b1cfed5df08feadc68cbMJlnPyPt0I||Jane|Doe|1
771 3|test03|af929a151340c6aed4d54d7e2651795d1ad2e2f7UW8dHoGv9z||No|Go|0
773As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the
774database. Also note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class
775model outside of your web application -- a very useful feature in many
779=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
cc0ef55e 781Edit C<lib/> and update it to match the following text (the
782only change is to the C<password_type> field):
efdaddec 783
784 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
785 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
786 default => {
787 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 788 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 789 password_type => 'self_check',
790 },
791 };
793The use of C<self_check> will cause
794Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC to call the
795C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 796
1390ef0e 797
d442cc9f 798=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
800Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
801running) and restart it:
803 $ script/
805You should now be able to go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and
fbbb9084 806login as before. When done, click the "logout" link on the login page
d442cc9f 807(or point your browser at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 809
4b4d3884 812As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
813you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
814will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
815is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
816authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
817those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
818redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the L<Basic
3ab6187c 819CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD> chapter of the tutorial to
4b4d3884 820take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 821
822First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 823to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
824has changed):
d442cc9f 825
905a3a26 826 =head2 delete
efdaddec 827
d442cc9f 828 Delete a book
efdaddec 829
d442cc9f 830 =cut
efdaddec 831
fbbb9084 832 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
833 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 834
fbbb9084 835 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
836 # with related 'book_authors' entries
837 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
efdaddec 838
d442cc9f 839 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
840 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
efdaddec 841
3533daff 842 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 843 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 844 }
1390ef0e 846Next, open C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 847flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 849 ...
d442cc9f 850 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 851 [%# Status and error messages %]
852 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
853 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
854 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
855 [% content %]
856 </div><!-- end content -->
857 ...
905a3a26 858
636ba9f7 859Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the
cc0ef55e 860rest of the file intact -- the only change we made to replace
861"|| c.request.params.status_msg" with "c.flash.status_msg" in the
862C<< <span class="message"> >> line.
d442cc9f 863
865=head2 Try Out Flash
636ba9f7 867Restart the development server, log in, and then point your browser to
868L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
869several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
870"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 871"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 872
873B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
874I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
875exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
876the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
877after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
878L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session|Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
1390ef0e 881
3533daff 882=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
636ba9f7 884Although the a use of flash above works well, the
1390ef0e 885C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 886alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
1390ef0e 887copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your controller
905a3a26 888and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
fbbb9084 889forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
905a3a26 890set the value in C<lib/> by changing the default
3533daff 891C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
893 __PACKAGE__->config(
efdaddec 894 name => 'MyApp',
3533daff 895 session => {flash_to_stash => 1}
896 );
45d511e0 898B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 899
45d511e0 900 <session>
901 flash_to_stash 1
902 </session>
3533daff 903
905a3a26 904The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
905since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 906possibly breaking some of your code.
1390ef0e 908Then edit C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the C<status_msg> line
909to match the following:
3533daff 910
911 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
913Restart the development server and go to
905a3a26 914L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete another
3533daff 915of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should still
916maintain the status message across the redirect even though you are no
8a7c5151 917longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 918
d442cc9f 919
920=head1 AUTHOR
922Kennedy Clark, C<>
924Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The
925most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
59884771 926L<>.
d442cc9f 927
45c7830f 928Copyright 2006-2008, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License
95674086 929(L<>).