minor ambiguity report, thanks asarch
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / 05_Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
3ab6187c 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 8This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
3ab6187c 16L<Introduction|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>
d442cc9f 17
18=item 2
3ab6187c 20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::02_CatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 21
22=item 3
3ab6187c 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3ab6187c 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3ab6187c 32B<05_Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3ab6187c 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3ab6187c 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::07_Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3ab6187c 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::08_Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3ab6187c 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::09_AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3ab6187c 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::10_Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
4b4d3884 61Chapter 6).
d442cc9f 62
4b4d3884 63This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
d442cc9f 64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
3ab6187c 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
fbbb9084 70
d442cc9f 71=head1 BASIC AUTHENTICATION
73This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
77=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
79First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
80add the role information here although it will not be used until the
4b4d3884 81authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by opening
d442cc9f 82C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
84 --
3b1fa91b 85 -- Add user and role tables, along with a many-to-many join table
d442cc9f 86 --
3c700304 87 PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON;
3b1fa91b 88 CREATE TABLE user (
d442cc9f 89 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
90 username TEXT,
91 password TEXT,
92 email_address TEXT,
93 first_name TEXT,
94 last_name TEXT,
95 active INTEGER
96 );
3b1fa91b 97 CREATE TABLE role (
d442cc9f 98 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
99 role TEXT
100 );
3b1fa91b 101 CREATE TABLE user_role (
d442cc9f 104 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
105 );
106 --
107 -- Load up some initial test data
108 --
3b1fa91b 109 INSERT INTO user VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', 't01@na.com', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
110 INSERT INTO user VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', 't02@na.com', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
111 INSERT INTO user VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', 't03@na.com', 'No', 'Go', 0);
112 INSERT INTO role VALUES (1, 'user');
113 INSERT INTO role VALUES (2, 'admin');
114 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 1);
115 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 2);
116 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (2, 1);
117 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (3, 1);
d442cc9f 118
119Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
121 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
444d6b27 123
d442cc9f 124=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 126Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
127the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
128option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 129
acbd7bdd 130 $ script/myapp_create.pl model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
b66dd084 131 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
132 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
1390ef0e 133 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
134 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
135 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
136 Schema dump completed.
137 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/DB.pm"
138 $
acbd7bdd 139 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3b1fa91b 140 Author.pm BookAuthor.pm Book.pm Role.pm User.pm UserRole.pm
d442cc9f 141
3c700304 142Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific Result Source
acbd7bdd 143files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 144importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
145files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
191dee29 146MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 147enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 148
3c700304 149Speaking of "hand-editted enhancements," we should now add the
150C<many_to_many> relationship information to the User Result Source file.
151As with the Book, BookAuthor, and Author files in
152L<Chapter 3|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>,
153L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader|DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader> has
154automatically created the C<has_many> and C<belongs_to> relationships
155for the new User, UserRole, and Role tables. However, as a convenience
156for mapping Users to their assigned roles (see
157L<Chapter 6|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>), we will
158also manually add a C<many_to_many> relationship. Edit
159C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> add the following information between
160the C<# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing
d442cc9f 162
3533daff 163 # many_to_many():
164 # args:
165 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 166 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
167 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 168 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
b66dd084 169 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'user_roles', 'role');
d442cc9f 170
3c700304 171The code for this update is obviously very similar to the edits we made
172to the C<Book> and C<Author> classes created in Chapter 3 with one
173exception: we only defined the C<many_to_many> relationship in one
174direction. Whereas we felt that we would want to map Authors to Books
175B<AND> Books to Authors, here we are only adding the convenience
176C<many_to_many> in the Users to Roles direction.
3533daff 177
636ba9f7 178Note that we do not need to make any change to the
179C<lib/MyApp/Schema.pm> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all
180of the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds in below the
181C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our
acbd7bdd 182new table information.
d442cc9f 183
3c700304 185=head2 Sanity-Check of the Development Server Reload
d442cc9f 186
3c700304 187We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want to
188do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Assuming that you
189are following along and using the "-r" option on C<myapp_server.pl>,
190then the development server should automatically reload (if not, press
191C<Ctrl-C> to break out of the server if it's running and then enter
192C<script/myapp_server.pl> to start it). Look for the three new model
193objects in the startup debug output:
d442cc9f 194
195 ...
196 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
197 | Class | Type |
198 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
199 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
200 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 201 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
202 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
3b1fa91b 203 | MyApp::Model::DB::Book | class |
204 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthor | class |
205 | MyApp::Model::DB::Role | class |
206 | MyApp::Model::DB::User | class |
207 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRole | class |
1edbdee6 208 | MyApp::View::HTML | instance |
d442cc9f 209 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
210 ...
acbd7bdd 212Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded"
3533daff 213by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 214
216=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 218Edit C<lib/MyApp.pm> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 219C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 220
acbd7bdd 221 # Load plugins
2a6eb5f9 222 use Catalyst qw/
3c700304 223 -Debug
224 ConfigLoader
225 Static::Simple
aa7ff325 226
3c700304 227 StackTrace
aa7ff325 228
3c700304 229 Authentication
aa7ff325 230
3c700304 231 Session
232 Session::Store::FastMmap
233 Session::State::Cookie
234 /;
d442cc9f 235
636ba9f7 236B<Note:> As discussed in MoreCatalystBasics, different versions of
444d6b27 237C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods to load the plugins,
238but we are going to use the current Catalyst 5.8X practice of putting
239them on the C<use Catalyst> line.
94d8da41 240
905a3a26 241The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
242C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 244
905a3a26 245Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
246is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
247C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
248Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
249indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 250configuration (see below).
3b1fa91b 252Make sure you include the additional plugins as new dependencies in
253the Makefile.PL file something like this:
e12f8011 255 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication';
256 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session';
257 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::FastMmap';
258 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie';
3b1fa91b 259
905a3a26 260Note that there are several options for
3c700304 261L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store>.
262L<Session::Store::Memcached|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::Memcached> or
e12f8011 263L<Session::Store::FastMmap|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::FastMmap> is
3c700304 264generally a good choice if you are on Unix. If you are running on
265Windows, try
266L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File>. Consult
905a3a26 267L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
3533daff 268for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
269backed session store).
d442cc9f 270
272=head2 Configure Authentication
3b1fa91b 274There are a variety of ways to provide configuration information to
efdaddec 275L<Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication|Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication>.
276Here we will use
278because it automatically sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. Open
279C<lib/MyApp.pm> and place the following text above the call to
282 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
283 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
284 default => {
285 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 286 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 287 password_type => 'clear',
288 },
289 };
291We could have placed this configuration in C<myapp.conf>, but placing
292it in C<lib/MyApp.pm> is probably a better place since it's not likely
293something that users of your application will want to change during
c3cf3bc3 294deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave C<class> and
295C<user_model> defined in C<lib/MyApp.pm> as we show above, but place
296C<password_type> in C<myapp.conf> to allow the type of password to be
297easily modified during deployment). We will stick with putting
298all of the authentication-related configuration in C<lib/MyApp.pm>
299for the tutorial, but if you wish to use C<myapp.conf>, just convert
300to the following code:
302 <Plugin::Authentication>
c3cf3bc3 303 <default>
43707053 304 password_type clear
3b1fa91b 305 user_model DB::User
c3cf3bc3 306 class SimpleDB
307 </default>
308 </Plugin::Authentication>
310B<TIP:> Here is a short script that will dump the contents of
311C<MyApp->config> to L<Config::General|Config::General> format in
3c700304 314 $ CATALYST_DEBUG=0 perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
c3cf3bc3 315 Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'
d442cc9f 316
3c700304 317B<HOWEVER>, if you try out the command above, be sure to delete the
318"myapp.conf" command. Otherwise, you will wind up with duplicate
c4fa597d 321B<NOTE:> Because we are using SimpleDB along with a database layout
3c700304 322that complies with its default assumptions: we don't need to specify
c4fa597d 323the names of the columns where our username and password information
324is stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB"). That being said,
87236f03 325SimpleDB lets you specify that type of information if you need to.
c4fa597d 326Take a look at
328for details.
1390ef0e 330
d442cc9f 331=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
fa59770d 333Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
d442cc9f 334
fa59770d 335 $ script/myapp_create.pl controller Login
336 $ script/myapp_create.pl controller Logout
d442cc9f 337
fa59770d 338You could easily use a single controller here. For example, you could
339have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
636ba9f7 340Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 341matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 342
fa59770d 343Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Login.pm>, locate the
636ba9f7 344C<sub index :Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you
345are using an older version of Catalyst) that was automatically
346inserted by the helpers when we created the Login controller above,
fa59770d 347and update the definition of C<sub index> to match:
d442cc9f 348
fa59770d 349 =head2 index
efdaddec 350
d442cc9f 351 Login logic
efdaddec 352
d442cc9f 353 =cut
efdaddec 354
fa59770d 355 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 356 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 357
d442cc9f 358 # Get the username and password from form
ab0bd0bb 359 my $username = $c->request->params->{username};
360 my $password = $c->request->params->{password};
efdaddec 361
d442cc9f 362 # If the username and password values were found in form
ab0bd0bb 363 if ($username && $password) {
d442cc9f 364 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 365 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 366 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 367 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 368 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
369 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
fa59770d 370 return;
d442cc9f 371 } else {
fa59770d 372 # Set an error message
0ed3df53 373 $c->stash(error_msg => "Bad username or password.");
d442cc9f 374 }
ab0bd0bb 375 } else {
fa59770d 376 # Set an error message
0ed3df53 377 $c->stash(error_msg => "Empty username or password.");
d442cc9f 378 }
efdaddec 379
d442cc9f 380 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
0ed3df53 381 $c->stash(template => 'login.tt2');
d442cc9f 382 }
fa59770d 384Be sure to remove the
385C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Login in Login.');>
386line of the C<sub index>.
d442cc9f 388This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 389login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
390redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
391will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
392C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
f632e28b 393user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 394
636ba9f7 395Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
396however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons,
397and partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
398C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 399found page for the application.
ae492862 400
fa59770d 401Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}>" here to
402specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
403actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the
404controller where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports
405arguments that allow relative and absolute paths to be defined, here
406we use an empty C<Path> definition to match on just the name of the
407controller itself. The method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make
408the match even more specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier --
409this forces the match on I<only> C</login>, not
d442cc9f 411
905a3a26 412Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 413C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Logout.pm> to match:
d442cc9f 414
415 =head2 index
efdaddec 416
d442cc9f 417 Logout logic
efdaddec 418
d442cc9f 419 =cut
efdaddec 420
ae492862 421 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 422 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 423
d442cc9f 424 # Clear the user's state
425 $c->logout;
efdaddec 426
d442cc9f 427 # Send the user to the starting point
428 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
429 }
905a3a26 431As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 432C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 433line of the C<sub index>.
436=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
438Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
440 [% META title = 'Login' %]
efdaddec 441
d442cc9f 442 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 443 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 444 <table>
445 <tr>
446 <td>Username:</td>
447 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
448 </tr>
449 <tr>
450 <td>Password:</td>
451 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
452 </tr>
453 <tr>
454 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
455 </tr>
456 </table>
457 </form>
460=head2 Add Valid User Check
462We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
463mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
464passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
444d6b27 465This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method in
d442cc9f 467
468Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Root.pm> class file and insert
469the following method:
471 =head2 auto
efdaddec 472
d442cc9f 473 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
efdaddec 474
d442cc9f 475 =cut
efdaddec 476
d442cc9f 477 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 478 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 479 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
ddfbd850 480 sub auto :Private {
d442cc9f 481 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 482
d442cc9f 483 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 484 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 485 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
486 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 487 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 488 # added above.
489 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
490 return 1;
491 }
efdaddec 492
d442cc9f 493 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
494 if (!$c->user_exists) {
495 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
496 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
497 # Redirect the user to the login page
498 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
499 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
500 return 0;
501 }
efdaddec 502
d442cc9f 503 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
504 return 1;
505 }
636ba9f7 507As discussed in
3ab6187c 508L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
636ba9f7 509every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
510most specific controller will be called. By placing the
511authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
512C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Root.pm> (or C<lib/MyApp.pm>), it will be
513called for I<every> request that is received by the entire
0416017e 514application.
d442cc9f 515
517=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
519Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
520changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
521this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
522lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 524 ...
d442cc9f 525 <p>
526 [%
905a3a26 527 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 528 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
529 %]
8a7c5151 530 [% IF c.user_exists %]
531 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
532 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 533 [% ELSE %]
534 You need to log in to use this application.
535 [% END %]
536 [%#
537 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 538 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
539 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
540 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 541 comments.
542 %]
3533daff 543 </p>
d442cc9f 544
545Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
546"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
547page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
548authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
549use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
552=head2 Try Out Authentication
3c700304 554The development server should have reloaded each time we edited one of
555the Controllers in the previous section. Now trying going to
556L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should be redirected to the
557login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload if necessary (the "You
558are already logged in" message should I<not> appear -- if it does, click
559the C<logout> button and try again). Note the C<***Root::auto User not
560found...> debug message in the development server output. Enter username
561C<test01> and password C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book
562List page.
d442cc9f 563
636ba9f7 564B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
565Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
566server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
acbd7bdd 567timestamps for cookies. You can quickly sync a Debian system by
568installing the "ntpdate" package:
570 sudo aptitude -y install ntpdate
572And then run the following command:
25ed8f40 573
acbd7bdd 574 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 575
acbd7bdd 576Or, depending on your firewall configuration:
578 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 580Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 581UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
582Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
583box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 584
d442cc9f 585Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 586bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 587
aa7ff325 588 ...
d442cc9f 589 <p>
8a7c5151 590 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
0416017e 591 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 592 </p>
905a3a26 594Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
595at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
3c700304 596files without a development server reload). Click the first link
905a3a26 597to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 598already logged in" message.
600Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
601You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
602need to log in to use this application."
efdaddec 607In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
608from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a
609random "salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack with
610dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 611
612B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
613tutorial will function normally.
fbbb9084 615Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
d442cc9f 616still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
617just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
efdaddec 618using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
d442cc9f 619between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
efdaddec 620easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
d442cc9f 621
efdaddec 623=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 624
efdaddec 625Next, we can re-run the model helper to have it include
626L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> in all of the
627Result Classes it generates for us. Simply use the same command we
628saw in Chapters 3 and 4, but add C<,EncodedColumn> to the C<components>
d442cc9f 630
efdaddec 631 $ script/myapp_create.pl model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
b66dd084 632 create=static components=TimeStamp,EncodedColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
633 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
d442cc9f 634
efdaddec 635If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
636includes EncodedColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look at
3b1fa91b 637C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> since that's the main class where we
efdaddec 638want to use hashed and salted passwords:
e12f8011 640 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "EncodedColumn");
efdaddec 641
643=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use EncodedColumn
3b1fa91b 645Open the file C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> and enter the following
efdaddec 646text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
647the closing "1;":
649 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 10-character salt
650 # with hex encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
651 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
652 'password' => {
efdaddec 653 encode_column => 1,
654 encode_class => 'Digest',
655 encode_args => {salt_length => 10},
656 encode_check_method => 'check_password',
657 },
658 );
660This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password
661fields at the top of the Result Class file to now use EncodedColumn
662logic (C<encoded_column> is set to 1). C<encode_class> can be set to
663either C<Digest> to use
665or C<Crypt::Eksblowfish::Bcrypt> for
667C<encode_args> is then used to customize the type of Digest you
668selected. Here we only specified the size of the salt to use, but
669we could have also modified the hashing algorithm ('SHA-256' is
670the default) and the format to use ('base64' is the default, but
671'hex' and 'binary' are other options). To use these, you could
672change the C<encode_args> to something like:
674 encode_args => {algorithm => 'SHA-1',
675 format => 'hex',
676 salt_length => 10},
679=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
681Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted passwords
682into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the file
683C<set_hashed_passwords.pl> in your editor and enter the following text:
685 #!/usr/bin/perl
687 use strict;
688 use warnings;
690 use MyApp::Schema;
692 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
3b1fa91b 694 my @users = $schema->resultset('User')->all;
efdaddec 695
696 foreach my $user (@users) {
697 $user->password('mypass');
698 $user->update;
699 }
701EncodedColumn lets us simple call C<$user->check_password($password)>
702to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
703above, call C<$user->update($new_password)> to update the hashed
704password stored for this user.
706Then run the following command:
2a6eb5f9 708 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib set_hashed_passwords.pl
efdaddec 709
c12b0d35 710We had to use the C<-Ilib> argument to tell perl to look under the
efdaddec 711C<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
2a6eb5f9 713The DBIC_TRACE output should show that the update worked:
715 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib set_hashed_passwords.pl
cc0ef55e 716 SELECT me.id, me.username, me.password, me.email_address,
717 me.first_name, me.last_name, me.active FROM user me:
718 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
719 'oXiyAcGOjowz7ISUhpIm1IrS8AxSZ9r4jNjpX9VnVeQmN6GRtRKTz', '1'
720 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
721 'PmyEPrkB8EGwvaF/DvJm7LIfxoZARjv8ygFIR7pc1gEA1OfwHGNzs', '2'
722 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
723 'h7CS1Fm9UCs4hjcbu2im0HumaHCJUq4Uriac+SQgdUMUfFSoOrz3c', '3'
2a6eb5f9 724
725But we can further confirm our actions by dumping the users table:
efdaddec 726
3b1fa91b 727 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from user"
efdaddec 728 1|test01|38d3974fa9e9263099f7bc2574284b2f55473a9bM=fwpX2NR8|t01@na.com|Joe|Blow|1
729 2|test02|6ed8586587e53e0d7509b1cfed5df08feadc68cbMJlnPyPt0I|t02@na.com|Jane|Doe|1
730 3|test03|af929a151340c6aed4d54d7e2651795d1ad2e2f7UW8dHoGv9z|t03@na.com|No|Go|0
732As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the
444d6b27 733database (not only are the hashes stored, but every hash is different
734even though the passwords are the same because of the added "salt"
735value). Also note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class
efdaddec 736model outside of your web application -- a very useful feature in many
740=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
cc0ef55e 742Edit C<lib/MyApp.pm> and update it to match the following text (the
743only change is to the C<password_type> field):
efdaddec 744
745 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
746 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
747 default => {
748 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 749 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 750 password_type => 'self_check',
751 },
752 };
754The use of C<self_check> will cause
755Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC to call the
756C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 757
1390ef0e 758
d442cc9f 759=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
3c700304 761The development server should restart as soon as your save the
762C<lib/MyApp.pm> file in the previous section. You should now be able to
763go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and login as before. When
764done, click the "logout" link on the login page (or point your browser
765at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 766
d442cc9f 767
4b4d3884 770As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
771you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
772will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
773is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
774authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
775those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
776redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the L<Basic
3ab6187c 777CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD> chapter of the tutorial to
4b4d3884 778take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 779
780First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Books.pm> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 781to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
782has changed):
d442cc9f 783
905a3a26 784 =head2 delete
efdaddec 785
d442cc9f 786 Delete a book
efdaddec 787
d442cc9f 788 =cut
efdaddec 789
fbbb9084 790 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
791 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 792
fbbb9084 793 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
794 # with related 'book_authors' entries
795 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
efdaddec 796
d442cc9f 797 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
798 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
efdaddec 799
3533daff 800 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 801 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 802 }
1390ef0e 804Next, open C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 805flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 807 ...
d442cc9f 808 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 809 [%# Status and error messages %]
810 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
811 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
812 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
813 [% content %]
814 </div><!-- end content -->
815 ...
905a3a26 816
636ba9f7 817Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the
cc0ef55e 818rest of the file intact -- the only change we made to replace
819"|| c.request.params.status_msg" with "c.flash.status_msg" in the
820C<< <span class="message"> >> line.
d442cc9f 821
823=head2 Try Out Flash
3c700304 825Authenticate using the login screen and then point your browser to
636ba9f7 826L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
827several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
828"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 829"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 830
831B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
832I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
833exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
834the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
835after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
836L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session|Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
1390ef0e 839
3533daff 840=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
636ba9f7 842Although the a use of flash above works well, the
1390ef0e 843C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 844alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
1390ef0e 845copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your controller
905a3a26 846and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
fbbb9084 847forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
905a3a26 848set the value in C<lib/MyApp.pm> by changing the default
3533daff 849C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
851 __PACKAGE__->config(
efdaddec 852 name => 'MyApp',
3c700304 853 # Disable deprecated behavior needed by old applications
854 disable_component_resolution_regex_fallback => 1,
da59dbea 855 session => { flash_to_stash => 1 },
3533daff 856 );
45d511e0 858B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 859
45d511e0 860 <session>
861 flash_to_stash 1
862 </session>
3533daff 863
905a3a26 864The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
865since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 866possibly breaking some of your code.
1390ef0e 868Then edit C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the C<status_msg> line
869to match the following:
3533daff 870
871 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
3c700304 873Now go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete
874another of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should
875still maintain the status message across the redirect even though you
876are no longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 877
d442cc9f 878
879=head1 AUTHOR
881Kennedy Clark, C<hkclark@gmail.com>
883Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The
884most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
59884771 885L<http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/repos/Catalyst/Catalyst-Manual/5.80/trunk/lib/Catalyst/Manual/Tutorial/>.
d442cc9f 886
4768184b 887Copyright 2006-2010, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License
95674086 888(L<http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/>).