minor change to chapter 6 POD
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / 05_Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
3ab6187c 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 8This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
3ab6187c 16L<Introduction|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>
d442cc9f 17
18=item 2
3ab6187c 20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::02_CatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 21
22=item 3
3ab6187c 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3ab6187c 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3ab6187c 32B<05_Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3ab6187c 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3ab6187c 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::07_Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3ab6187c 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::08_Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3ab6187c 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::09_AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3ab6187c 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::10_Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
4b4d3884 61Chapter 6).
d442cc9f 62
4b4d3884 63This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
d442cc9f 64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
3ab6187c 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
fbbb9084 70
d442cc9f 71=head1 BASIC AUTHENTICATION
73This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
77=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
79First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
80add the role information here although it will not be used until the
4b4d3884 81authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by opening
d442cc9f 82C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
c5b13dd3 84 PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON;
d442cc9f 85 --
3b1fa91b 86 -- Add user and role tables, along with a many-to-many join table
d442cc9f 87 --
3b1fa91b 88 CREATE TABLE user (
d442cc9f 89 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
90 username TEXT,
91 password TEXT,
92 email_address TEXT,
93 first_name TEXT,
94 last_name TEXT,
95 active INTEGER
96 );
3b1fa91b 97 CREATE TABLE role (
d442cc9f 98 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
99 role TEXT
100 );
3b1fa91b 101 CREATE TABLE user_role (
d442cc9f 104 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
105 );
106 --
107 -- Load up some initial test data
108 --
3b1fa91b 109 INSERT INTO user VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', 't01@na.com', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
110 INSERT INTO user VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', 't02@na.com', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
111 INSERT INTO user VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', 't03@na.com', 'No', 'Go', 0);
112 INSERT INTO role VALUES (1, 'user');
113 INSERT INTO role VALUES (2, 'admin');
114 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 1);
115 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 2);
116 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (2, 1);
117 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (3, 1);
d442cc9f 118
119Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
121 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
444d6b27 123
d442cc9f 124=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 126Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
127the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
128option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 129
acbd7bdd 130 $ script/myapp_create.pl model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
b66dd084 131 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
132 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
1390ef0e 133 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
134 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
135 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
136 Schema dump completed.
137 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/DB.pm"
138 $
acbd7bdd 139 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3b1fa91b 140 Author.pm BookAuthor.pm Book.pm Role.pm User.pm UserRole.pm
d442cc9f 141
905a3a26 142Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific result source
acbd7bdd 143files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 144importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
145files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
191dee29 146MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 147enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 148
3b1fa91b 149Speaking of "hand-editted enhancements," we should now add
905a3a26 150relationship information to the three new result source files. Edit
151each of these files and add the following information between the C<#
3533daff 152DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing C<1;>:
d442cc9f 153
3b1fa91b 154C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm>:
d442cc9f 155
b66dd084 156
3533daff 157 # many_to_many():
158 # args:
159 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 160 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
161 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 162 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
b66dd084 163 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'user_roles', 'role');
d442cc9f 164
3533daff 165
b66dd084 166The code for this update is obviously very similar to the edits we made to the
167C<Book> and C<Author> classes created in Chapter 3.
3533daff 168
636ba9f7 169Note that we do not need to make any change to the
170C<lib/MyApp/Schema.pm> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all
171of the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds in below the
172C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our
acbd7bdd 173new table information.
d442cc9f 174
176=head2 Sanity-Check Reload of Development Server
905a3a26 178We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want
179to do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Press
180C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still running)
3533daff 181and restart it:
d442cc9f 182
183 $ script/myapp_server.pl
185Look for the three new model objects in the startup debug output:
187 ...
188 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
189 | Class | Type |
190 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
191 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
192 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 193 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
194 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
3b1fa91b 195 | MyApp::Model::DB::Book | class |
196 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthor | class |
197 | MyApp::Model::DB::Role | class |
198 | MyApp::Model::DB::User | class |
199 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRole | class |
d442cc9f 200 | MyApp::View::TT | instance |
201 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
202 ...
acbd7bdd 204Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded"
3533daff 205by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 206
208=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 210Edit C<lib/MyApp.pm> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 211C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 212
acbd7bdd 213 # Load plugins
2a6eb5f9 214 use Catalyst qw/
215 -Debug
3b1fa91b 216 ConfigLoader
217 Static::Simple
efdaddec 218
3b1fa91b 219 StackTrace
efdaddec 220
3b1fa91b 221 Authentication
efdaddec 222
3b1fa91b 223 Session
224 Session::Store::FastMmap
225 Session::State::Cookie
226 /;
d442cc9f 227
636ba9f7 228B<Note:> As discussed in MoreCatalystBasics, different versions of
444d6b27 229C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods to load the plugins,
230but we are going to use the current Catalyst 5.8X practice of putting
231them on the C<use Catalyst> line.
94d8da41 232
905a3a26 233The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
234C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 236
905a3a26 237Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
238is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
239C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
240Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
241indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 242configuration (see below).
3b1fa91b 244Make sure you include the additional plugins as new dependencies in
245the Makefile.PL file something like this:
e12f8011 247 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication';
248 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session';
249 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::FastMmap';
250 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie';
3b1fa91b 251
905a3a26 252Note that there are several options for
e12f8011 254
255(L<Session::Store::Memcached|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::Memcached> or
256L<Session::Store::FastMmap|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::FastMmap> is
257generally a good choice if you are on Unix; try
905a3a26 258L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File> if you
259are on Win32) -- consult
260L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
3533daff 261for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
262backed session store).
d442cc9f 263
265=head2 Configure Authentication
3b1fa91b 267There are a variety of ways to provide configuration information to
efdaddec 268L<Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication|Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication>.
269Here we will use
271because it automatically sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. Open
272C<lib/MyApp.pm> and place the following text above the call to
275 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
276 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
277 default => {
278 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 279 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 280 password_type => 'clear',
281 },
282 };
284We could have placed this configuration in C<myapp.conf>, but placing
285it in C<lib/MyApp.pm> is probably a better place since it's not likely
286something that users of your application will want to change during
c3cf3bc3 287deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave C<class> and
288C<user_model> defined in C<lib/MyApp.pm> as we show above, but place
289C<password_type> in C<myapp.conf> to allow the type of password to be
290easily modified during deployment). We will stick with putting
291all of the authentication-related configuration in C<lib/MyApp.pm>
292for the tutorial, but if you wish to use C<myapp.conf>, just convert
293to the following code:
295 <Plugin::Authentication>
c3cf3bc3 296 <default>
43707053 297 password_type clear
3b1fa91b 298 user_model DB::User
c3cf3bc3 299 class SimpleDB
300 </default>
301 </Plugin::Authentication>
303B<TIP:> Here is a short script that will dump the contents of
304C<MyApp->config> to L<Config::General|Config::General> format in
307 $ perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
308 Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'
d442cc9f 309
c4fa597d 310B<NOTE:> Because we are using SimpleDB along with a database layout
311that complies with its default assumptions, we don't need to specify
312the names of the columns where our username and password information
313is stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB"). That being said,
87236f03 314SimpleDB lets you specify that type of information if you need to.
c4fa597d 315Take a look at
317for details.
1390ef0e 319
d442cc9f 320=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
322Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
324 $ script/myapp_create.pl controller Login
325 $ script/myapp_create.pl controller Logout
636ba9f7 327You could easily use a single controller here. For example, you could
328have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
329Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 330matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 331
636ba9f7 332Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Login.pm>, locate the
333C<sub index :Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you
334are using an older version of Catalyst) that was automatically
335inserted by the helpers when we created the Login controller above,
fbbb9084 336and update the definition of C<sub index> to match:
d442cc9f 337
338 =head2 index
efdaddec 339
d442cc9f 340 Login logic
efdaddec 341
d442cc9f 342 =cut
efdaddec 343
ae492862 344 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 345 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 346
d442cc9f 347 # Get the username and password from form
ab0bd0bb 348 my $username = $c->request->params->{username};
349 my $password = $c->request->params->{password};
efdaddec 350
d442cc9f 351 # If the username and password values were found in form
ab0bd0bb 352 if ($username && $password) {
d442cc9f 353 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 354 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 355 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 356 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 357 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
358 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 359 return;
360 } else {
361 # Set an error message
362 $c->stash->{error_msg} = "Bad username or password.";
363 }
ab0bd0bb 364 } else {
365 # Set an error message
366 $c->stash->{error_msg} = "Empty username or password.";
d442cc9f 367 }
efdaddec 368
d442cc9f 369 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
370 $c->stash->{template} = 'login.tt2';
371 }
3b1fa91b 373Be sure to remove the C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Login in Login.');>
374line of the C<sub index>.
d442cc9f 376This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 377login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
378redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
379will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
380C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
f632e28b 381user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 382
636ba9f7 383Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
384however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons,
385and partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
386C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 387found page for the application.
ae492862 388
fbbb9084 389Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}>" here to
905a3a26 390specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
391actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the
392controller where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports
393arguments that allow relative and absolute paths to be defined, here
394we use an empty C<Path> definition to match on just the name of the
395controller itself. The method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make
ae492862 396the match even more specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier --
905a3a26 397this forces the match on I<only> C</login>, not
d442cc9f 398C</login/somethingelse>.
905a3a26 400Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 401C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Logout.pm> to match:
d442cc9f 402
403 =head2 index
efdaddec 404
d442cc9f 405 Logout logic
efdaddec 406
d442cc9f 407 =cut
efdaddec 408
ae492862 409 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 410 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 411
d442cc9f 412 # Clear the user's state
413 $c->logout;
efdaddec 414
d442cc9f 415 # Send the user to the starting point
416 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
417 }
905a3a26 419As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 420C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 421line of the C<sub index>.
424=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
426Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
428 [% META title = 'Login' %]
efdaddec 429
d442cc9f 430 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 431 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 432 <table>
433 <tr>
434 <td>Username:</td>
435 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
436 </tr>
437 <tr>
438 <td>Password:</td>
439 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
440 </tr>
441 <tr>
442 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
443 </tr>
444 </table>
445 </form>
448=head2 Add Valid User Check
450We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
451mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
452passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
444d6b27 453This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method in
d442cc9f 455
456Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Root.pm> class file and insert
457the following method:
459 =head2 auto
efdaddec 460
d442cc9f 461 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
efdaddec 462
d442cc9f 463 =cut
efdaddec 464
d442cc9f 465 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 466 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 467 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
468 sub auto : Private {
469 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 470
d442cc9f 471 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 472 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 473 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
474 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 475 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 476 # added above.
477 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
478 return 1;
479 }
efdaddec 480
d442cc9f 481 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
482 if (!$c->user_exists) {
483 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
484 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
485 # Redirect the user to the login page
486 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
487 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
488 return 0;
489 }
efdaddec 490
d442cc9f 491 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
492 return 1;
493 }
636ba9f7 495As discussed in
3ab6187c 496L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
636ba9f7 497every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
498most specific controller will be called. By placing the
499authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
500C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Root.pm> (or C<lib/MyApp.pm>), it will be
501called for I<every> request that is received by the entire
0416017e 502application.
d442cc9f 503
505=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
507Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
508changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
509this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
510lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 512 ...
d442cc9f 513 <p>
514 [%
905a3a26 515 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 516 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
517 %]
8a7c5151 518 [% IF c.user_exists %]
519 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
520 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 521 [% ELSE %]
522 You need to log in to use this application.
523 [% END %]
524 [%#
525 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 526 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
527 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
528 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 529 comments.
530 %]
3533daff 531 </p>
d442cc9f 532
533Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
534"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
535page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
536authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
537use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
540=head2 Try Out Authentication
542Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
543running) and restart it:
545 $ script/myapp_server.pl
636ba9f7 547B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
548Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
549server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
acbd7bdd 550timestamps for cookies. You can quickly sync a Debian system by
551installing the "ntpdate" package:
553 sudo aptitude -y install ntpdate
555And then run the following command:
25ed8f40 556
acbd7bdd 557 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 558
acbd7bdd 559Or, depending on your firewall configuration:
561 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 563Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 564UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
565Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
566box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 567
636ba9f7 568Now trying going to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should
569be redirected to the login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload
570if necessary (the "You are already logged in" message should I<not>
571appear -- if it does, click the C<logout> button and try again). Note
572the C<***Root::auto User not found...> debug message in the
573development server output. Enter username C<test01> and password
1390ef0e 574C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book List page.
d442cc9f 575
576Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 577bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 578
579 <p>
8a7c5151 580 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
0416017e 581 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 582 </p>
905a3a26 584Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
585at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
586files without reloading the development server). Click the first link
587to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 588already logged in" message.
590Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
591You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
592need to log in to use this application."
efdaddec 597In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
598from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a
599random "salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack with
600dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 601
602B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
603tutorial will function normally.
fbbb9084 605Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
d442cc9f 606still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
607just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
efdaddec 608using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
d442cc9f 609between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
efdaddec 610easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
d442cc9f 611
efdaddec 613=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 614
efdaddec 615Next, we can re-run the model helper to have it include
616L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> in all of the
617Result Classes it generates for us. Simply use the same command we
618saw in Chapters 3 and 4, but add C<,EncodedColumn> to the C<components>
d442cc9f 620
efdaddec 621 $ script/myapp_create.pl model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
b66dd084 622 create=static components=TimeStamp,EncodedColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
623 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
d442cc9f 624
efdaddec 625If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
626includes EncodedColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look at
3b1fa91b 627C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> since that's the main class where we
efdaddec 628want to use hashed and salted passwords:
e12f8011 630 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "EncodedColumn");
efdaddec 631
633=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use EncodedColumn
3b1fa91b 635Open the file C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> and enter the following
efdaddec 636text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
637the closing "1;":
639 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 10-character salt
640 # with hex encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
641 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
642 'password' => {
643 data_type => "TEXT",
644 size => undef,
645 encode_column => 1,
646 encode_class => 'Digest',
647 encode_args => {salt_length => 10},
648 encode_check_method => 'check_password',
649 },
650 );
652This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password
653fields at the top of the Result Class file to now use EncodedColumn
654logic (C<encoded_column> is set to 1). C<encode_class> can be set to
655either C<Digest> to use
657or C<Crypt::Eksblowfish::Bcrypt> for
659C<encode_args> is then used to customize the type of Digest you
660selected. Here we only specified the size of the salt to use, but
661we could have also modified the hashing algorithm ('SHA-256' is
662the default) and the format to use ('base64' is the default, but
663'hex' and 'binary' are other options). To use these, you could
664change the C<encode_args> to something like:
666 encode_args => {algorithm => 'SHA-1',
667 format => 'hex',
668 salt_length => 10},
671=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
673Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted passwords
674into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the file
675C<set_hashed_passwords.pl> in your editor and enter the following text:
677 #!/usr/bin/perl
679 use strict;
680 use warnings;
682 use MyApp::Schema;
684 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
3b1fa91b 686 my @users = $schema->resultset('User')->all;
efdaddec 687
688 foreach my $user (@users) {
689 $user->password('mypass');
690 $user->update;
691 }
693EncodedColumn lets us simple call C<$user->check_password($password)>
694to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
695above, call C<$user->update($new_password)> to update the hashed
696password stored for this user.
698Then run the following command:
2a6eb5f9 700 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib set_hashed_passwords.pl
efdaddec 701
c12b0d35 702We had to use the C<-Ilib> argument to tell perl to look under the
efdaddec 703C<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
2a6eb5f9 705The DBIC_TRACE output should show that the update worked:
707 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib set_hashed_passwords.pl
cc0ef55e 708 SELECT me.id, me.username, me.password, me.email_address,
709 me.first_name, me.last_name, me.active FROM user me:
710 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
711 'oXiyAcGOjowz7ISUhpIm1IrS8AxSZ9r4jNjpX9VnVeQmN6GRtRKTz', '1'
712 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
713 'PmyEPrkB8EGwvaF/DvJm7LIfxoZARjv8ygFIR7pc1gEA1OfwHGNzs', '2'
714 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
715 'h7CS1Fm9UCs4hjcbu2im0HumaHCJUq4Uriac+SQgdUMUfFSoOrz3c', '3'
2a6eb5f9 716
717But we can further confirm our actions by dumping the users table:
efdaddec 718
3b1fa91b 719 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from user"
efdaddec 720 1|test01|38d3974fa9e9263099f7bc2574284b2f55473a9bM=fwpX2NR8|t01@na.com|Joe|Blow|1
721 2|test02|6ed8586587e53e0d7509b1cfed5df08feadc68cbMJlnPyPt0I|t02@na.com|Jane|Doe|1
722 3|test03|af929a151340c6aed4d54d7e2651795d1ad2e2f7UW8dHoGv9z|t03@na.com|No|Go|0
724As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the
444d6b27 725database (not only are the hashes stored, but every hash is different
726even though the passwords are the same because of the added "salt"
727value). Also note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class
efdaddec 728model outside of your web application -- a very useful feature in many
732=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
cc0ef55e 734Edit C<lib/MyApp.pm> and update it to match the following text (the
735only change is to the C<password_type> field):
efdaddec 736
737 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
738 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
739 default => {
740 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 741 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 742 password_type => 'self_check',
743 },
744 };
746The use of C<self_check> will cause
747Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC to call the
748C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 749
1390ef0e 750
d442cc9f 751=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
753Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
754running) and restart it:
756 $ script/myapp_server.pl
758You should now be able to go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and
fbbb9084 759login as before. When done, click the "logout" link on the login page
d442cc9f 760(or point your browser at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 762
4b4d3884 765As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
766you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
767will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
768is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
769authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
770those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
771redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the L<Basic
3ab6187c 772CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD> chapter of the tutorial to
4b4d3884 773take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 774
775First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Books.pm> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 776to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
777has changed):
d442cc9f 778
905a3a26 779 =head2 delete
efdaddec 780
d442cc9f 781 Delete a book
efdaddec 782
d442cc9f 783 =cut
efdaddec 784
fbbb9084 785 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
786 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 787
fbbb9084 788 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
789 # with related 'book_authors' entries
790 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
efdaddec 791
d442cc9f 792 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
793 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
efdaddec 794
3533daff 795 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 796 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 797 }
1390ef0e 799Next, open C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 800flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 802 ...
d442cc9f 803 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 804 [%# Status and error messages %]
805 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
806 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
807 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
808 [% content %]
809 </div><!-- end content -->
810 ...
905a3a26 811
636ba9f7 812Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the
cc0ef55e 813rest of the file intact -- the only change we made to replace
814"|| c.request.params.status_msg" with "c.flash.status_msg" in the
815C<< <span class="message"> >> line.
d442cc9f 816
818=head2 Try Out Flash
636ba9f7 820Restart the development server, log in, and then point your browser to
821L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
822several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
823"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 824"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 825
826B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
827I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
828exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
829the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
830after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
831L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session|Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
1390ef0e 834
3533daff 835=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
636ba9f7 837Although the a use of flash above works well, the
1390ef0e 838C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 839alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
1390ef0e 840copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your controller
905a3a26 841and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
fbbb9084 842forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
905a3a26 843set the value in C<lib/MyApp.pm> by changing the default
3533daff 844C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
846 __PACKAGE__->config(
efdaddec 847 name => 'MyApp',
444d6b27 848 session => {flash_to_stash => 1},
3533daff 849 );
45d511e0 851B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 852
45d511e0 853 <session>
854 flash_to_stash 1
855 </session>
3533daff 856
905a3a26 857The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
858since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 859possibly breaking some of your code.
1390ef0e 861Then edit C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the C<status_msg> line
862to match the following:
3533daff 863
864 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
866Restart the development server and go to
905a3a26 867L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete another
3533daff 868of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should still
869maintain the status message across the redirect even though you are no
8a7c5151 870longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 871
d442cc9f 872
873=head1 AUTHOR
875Kennedy Clark, C<hkclark@gmail.com>
877Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The
878most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
59884771 879L<http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/repos/Catalyst/Catalyst-Manual/5.80/trunk/lib/Catalyst/Manual/Tutorial/>.
d442cc9f 880
45c7830f 881Copyright 2006-2008, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License
95674086 882(L<http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/>).