make note to use default_view
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / 05_Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
3ab6187c 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 8This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
3ab6187c 16L<Introduction|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>
d442cc9f 17
18=item 2
3ab6187c 20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::02_CatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 21
22=item 3
3ab6187c 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3ab6187c 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3ab6187c 32B<05_Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3ab6187c 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3ab6187c 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::07_Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3ab6187c 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::08_Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3ab6187c 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::09_AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3ab6187c 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::10_Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
4b4d3884 61Chapter 6).
d442cc9f 62
4b4d3884 63This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
d442cc9f 64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
3ab6187c 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
fbbb9084 70
d442cc9f 71=head1 BASIC AUTHENTICATION
73This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
77=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
79First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
80add the role information here although it will not be used until the
4b4d3884 81authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by opening
d442cc9f 82C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
84 --
3b1fa91b 85 -- Add user and role tables, along with a many-to-many join table
d442cc9f 86 --
3c700304 87 PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON;
3b1fa91b 88 CREATE TABLE user (
d442cc9f 89 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
90 username TEXT,
91 password TEXT,
92 email_address TEXT,
93 first_name TEXT,
94 last_name TEXT,
95 active INTEGER
96 );
3b1fa91b 97 CREATE TABLE role (
d442cc9f 98 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
99 role TEXT
100 );
3b1fa91b 101 CREATE TABLE user_role (
d442cc9f 104 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
105 );
106 --
107 -- Load up some initial test data
108 --
3b1fa91b 109 INSERT INTO user VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', '', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
110 INSERT INTO user VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', '', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
111 INSERT INTO user VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', '', 'No', 'Go', 0);
112 INSERT INTO role VALUES (1, 'user');
113 INSERT INTO role VALUES (2, 'admin');
114 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 1);
115 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 2);
116 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (2, 1);
117 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (3, 1);
d442cc9f 118
119Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
121 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
444d6b27 123
d442cc9f 124=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 126Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
127the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
128option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 129
acbd7bdd 130 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
b66dd084 131 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
132 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
1390ef0e 133 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
134 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
135 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
136 Schema dump completed.
137 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/"
138 $
acbd7bdd 139 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3b1fa91b 140
d442cc9f 141
3c700304 142Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific Result Source
acbd7bdd 143files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 144importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
145files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
191dee29 146MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 147enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 148
3c700304 149Speaking of "hand-editted enhancements," we should now add the
150C<many_to_many> relationship information to the User Result Source file.
151As with the Book, BookAuthor, and Author files in
152L<Chapter 3|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>,
153L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader|DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader> has
154automatically created the C<has_many> and C<belongs_to> relationships
155for the new User, UserRole, and Role tables. However, as a convenience
156for mapping Users to their assigned roles (see
157L<Chapter 6|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>), we will
158also manually add a C<many_to_many> relationship. Edit
159C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> add the following information between
160the C<# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing
d442cc9f 162
3533daff 163 # many_to_many():
164 # args:
165 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 166 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
167 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 168 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
b66dd084 169 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'user_roles', 'role');
d442cc9f 170
3c700304 171The code for this update is obviously very similar to the edits we made
172to the C<Book> and C<Author> classes created in Chapter 3 with one
173exception: we only defined the C<many_to_many> relationship in one
174direction. Whereas we felt that we would want to map Authors to Books
175B<AND> Books to Authors, here we are only adding the convenience
176C<many_to_many> in the Users to Roles direction.
3533daff 177
636ba9f7 178Note that we do not need to make any change to the
179C<lib/MyApp/> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all
180of the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds in below the
181C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our
acbd7bdd 182new table information.
d442cc9f 183
3c700304 185=head2 Sanity-Check of the Development Server Reload
d442cc9f 186
3c700304 187We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want to
188do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Assuming that you
189are following along and using the "-r" option on C<>,
190then the development server should automatically reload (if not, press
191C<Ctrl-C> to break out of the server if it's running and then enter
192C<script/> to start it). Look for the three new model
193objects in the startup debug output:
d442cc9f 194
195 ...
196 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
197 | Class | Type |
198 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
199 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
200 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 201 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
202 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
3b1fa91b 203 | MyApp::Model::DB::Book | class |
204 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthor | class |
205 | MyApp::Model::DB::Role | class |
206 | MyApp::Model::DB::User | class |
207 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRole | class |
d442cc9f 208 | MyApp::View::TT | instance |
209 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
210 ...
acbd7bdd 212Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded"
3533daff 213by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 214
216=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 218Edit C<lib/> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 219C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 220
acbd7bdd 221 # Load plugins
2a6eb5f9 222 use Catalyst qw/
3c700304 223 -Debug
224 ConfigLoader
225 Static::Simple
aa7ff325 226
3c700304 227 StackTrace
aa7ff325 228
3c700304 229 Authentication
aa7ff325 230
3c700304 231 Session
232 Session::Store::FastMmap
233 Session::State::Cookie
234 /;
d442cc9f 235
636ba9f7 236B<Note:> As discussed in MoreCatalystBasics, different versions of
444d6b27 237C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods to load the plugins,
238but we are going to use the current Catalyst 5.8X practice of putting
239them on the C<use Catalyst> line.
94d8da41 240
905a3a26 241The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
242C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 244
905a3a26 245Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
246is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
247C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
248Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
249indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 250configuration (see below).
3b1fa91b 252Make sure you include the additional plugins as new dependencies in
253the Makefile.PL file something like this:
e12f8011 255 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication';
256 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session';
257 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::FastMmap';
258 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie';
3b1fa91b 259
905a3a26 260Note that there are several options for
3c700304 261L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store>.
262L<Session::Store::Memcached|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::Memcached> or
e12f8011 263L<Session::Store::FastMmap|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::FastMmap> is
3c700304 264generally a good choice if you are on Unix. If you are running on
265Windows, try
266L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File>. Consult
905a3a26 267L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
3533daff 268for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
269backed session store).
d442cc9f 270
272=head2 Configure Authentication
3b1fa91b 274There are a variety of ways to provide configuration information to
efdaddec 275L<Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication|Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication>.
276Here we will use
278because it automatically sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. Open
279C<lib/> and place the following text above the call to
282 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
283 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
284 default => {
285 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 286 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 287 password_type => 'clear',
288 },
289 };
291We could have placed this configuration in C<myapp.conf>, but placing
292it in C<lib/> is probably a better place since it's not likely
293something that users of your application will want to change during
c3cf3bc3 294deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave C<class> and
295C<user_model> defined in C<lib/> as we show above, but place
296C<password_type> in C<myapp.conf> to allow the type of password to be
297easily modified during deployment). We will stick with putting
298all of the authentication-related configuration in C<lib/>
299for the tutorial, but if you wish to use C<myapp.conf>, just convert
300to the following code:
302 <Plugin::Authentication>
c3cf3bc3 303 <default>
43707053 304 password_type clear
3b1fa91b 305 user_model DB::User
c3cf3bc3 306 class SimpleDB
307 </default>
308 </Plugin::Authentication>
310B<TIP:> Here is a short script that will dump the contents of
311C<MyApp->config> to L<Config::General|Config::General> format in
3c700304 314 $ CATALYST_DEBUG=0 perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
c3cf3bc3 315 Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'
d442cc9f 316
3c700304 317B<HOWEVER>, if you try out the command above, be sure to delete the
318"myapp.conf" command. Otherwise, you will wind up with duplicate
c4fa597d 321B<NOTE:> Because we are using SimpleDB along with a database layout
3c700304 322that complies with its default assumptions: we don't need to specify
c4fa597d 323the names of the columns where our username and password information
324is stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB"). That being said,
87236f03 325SimpleDB lets you specify that type of information if you need to.
c4fa597d 326Take a look at
328for details.
1390ef0e 330
d442cc9f 331=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
1ab117d7 333Use the Catalyst create script to create a stub controller file:
d442cc9f 334
1ab117d7 335 $ script/ controller Authentication
d442cc9f 336
1ab117d7 337You could easily use multiple controller's here. For example, you could
338have a C<User> controller for both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
636ba9f7 339Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 340matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 341
1ab117d7 342Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>, locate the
636ba9f7 343C<sub index :Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you
344are using an older version of Catalyst) that was automatically
345inserted by the helpers when we created the Login controller above,
1ab117d7 346and remove the definition of C<sub index>. Add the following sub:
d442cc9f 347
1ab117d7 348 =head2 login
efdaddec 349
d442cc9f 350 Login logic
efdaddec 351
d442cc9f 352 =cut
efdaddec 353
1ab117d7 354 # global means the path to it will be /login not /authenticaton/login
355 sub login :Global :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 356 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 357
d442cc9f 358 # Get the username and password from form
ab0bd0bb 359 my $username = $c->request->params->{username};
360 my $password = $c->request->params->{password};
efdaddec 361
d442cc9f 362 # If the username and password values were found in form
ab0bd0bb 363 if ($username && $password) {
d442cc9f 364 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 365 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 366 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 367 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 368 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
369 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
1ab117d7 370 return 1;
d442cc9f 371 } else {
0ed3df53 372 $c->stash(error_msg => "Bad username or password.");
d442cc9f 373 }
ab0bd0bb 374 } else {
0ed3df53 375 $c->stash(error_msg => "Empty username or password.");
d442cc9f 376 }
efdaddec 377
d442cc9f 378 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
0ed3df53 379 $c->stash(template => 'login.tt2');
d442cc9f 380 }
382This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 383login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
384redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
385will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
386C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
f632e28b 387user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 388
636ba9f7 389Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
390however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons,
391and partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
392C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 393found page for the application.
ae492862 394
1ab117d7 395Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Global :Args(0) {...}>" here to
396specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Global> actions create URI matches
397relative to the web root. We make the match even more specific with the
398C<:Args(0)> action modifier -- this forces the match on I<only> C</login>,
399not C</login/somethingelse>.
d442cc9f 400
905a3a26 401Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 402C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> to match:
d442cc9f 403
404 =head2 index
efdaddec 405
d442cc9f 406 Logout logic
efdaddec 407
d442cc9f 408 =cut
efdaddec 409
ae492862 410 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 411 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 412
d442cc9f 413 # Clear the user's state
414 $c->logout;
efdaddec 415
d442cc9f 416 # Send the user to the starting point
417 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
418 }
905a3a26 420As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 421C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 422line of the C<sub index>.
425=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
427Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
429 [% META title = 'Login' %]
efdaddec 430
d442cc9f 431 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 432 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 433 <table>
434 <tr>
435 <td>Username:</td>
436 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
437 </tr>
438 <tr>
439 <td>Password:</td>
440 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
441 </tr>
442 <tr>
443 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
444 </tr>
445 </table>
446 </form>
449=head2 Add Valid User Check
451We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
452mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
453passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
444d6b27 454This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method in
d442cc9f 456
457Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> class file and insert
458the following method:
460 =head2 auto
efdaddec 461
d442cc9f 462 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
efdaddec 463
d442cc9f 464 =cut
efdaddec 465
d442cc9f 466 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 467 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 468 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
ddfbd850 469 sub auto :Private {
d442cc9f 470 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 471
d442cc9f 472 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 473 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 474 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
475 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 476 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 477 # added above.
478 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
479 return 1;
480 }
efdaddec 481
d442cc9f 482 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
483 if (!$c->user_exists) {
484 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
485 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
486 # Redirect the user to the login page
487 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
488 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
489 return 0;
490 }
efdaddec 491
d442cc9f 492 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
493 return 1;
494 }
636ba9f7 496As discussed in
3ab6187c 497L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
636ba9f7 498every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
499most specific controller will be called. By placing the
500authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
501C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> (or C<lib/>), it will be
502called for I<every> request that is received by the entire
0416017e 503application.
d442cc9f 504
506=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
508Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
509changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
510this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
511lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 513 ...
d442cc9f 514 <p>
515 [%
905a3a26 516 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 517 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
518 %]
8a7c5151 519 [% IF c.user_exists %]
520 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
521 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 522 [% ELSE %]
523 You need to log in to use this application.
524 [% END %]
525 [%#
526 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 527 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
528 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
529 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 530 comments.
531 %]
3533daff 532 </p>
d442cc9f 533
534Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
535"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
536page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
537authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
538use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
541=head2 Try Out Authentication
3c700304 543The development server should have reloaded each time we edited one of
544the Controllers in the previous section. Now trying going to
545L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should be redirected to the
546login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload if necessary (the "You
547are already logged in" message should I<not> appear -- if it does, click
548the C<logout> button and try again). Note the C<***Root::auto User not
549found...> debug message in the development server output. Enter username
550C<test01> and password C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book
551List page.
d442cc9f 552
636ba9f7 553B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
554Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
555server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
acbd7bdd 556timestamps for cookies. You can quickly sync a Debian system by
557installing the "ntpdate" package:
559 sudo aptitude -y install ntpdate
561And then run the following command:
25ed8f40 562
acbd7bdd 563 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 564
acbd7bdd 565Or, depending on your firewall configuration:
567 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 569Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 570UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
571Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
572box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 573
d442cc9f 574Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 575bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 576
aa7ff325 577 ...
d442cc9f 578 <p>
8a7c5151 579 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
0416017e 580 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 581 </p>
905a3a26 583Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
584at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
3c700304 585files without a development server reload). Click the first link
905a3a26 586to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 587already logged in" message.
589Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
590You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
591need to log in to use this application."
efdaddec 596In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
597from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a
598random "salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack with
599dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 600
601B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
602tutorial will function normally.
fbbb9084 604Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
d442cc9f 605still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
606just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
efdaddec 607using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
d442cc9f 608between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
efdaddec 609easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
d442cc9f 610
efdaddec 612=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn
d442cc9f 613
efdaddec 614Next, we can re-run the model helper to have it include
615L<DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn|DBIx::Class::EncodedColumn> in all of the
616Result Classes it generates for us. Simply use the same command we
617saw in Chapters 3 and 4, but add C<,EncodedColumn> to the C<components>
d442cc9f 619
efdaddec 620 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
b66dd084 621 create=static components=TimeStamp,EncodedColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
622 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
d442cc9f 623
efdaddec 624If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
625includes EncodedColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look at
3b1fa91b 626C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> since that's the main class where we
efdaddec 627want to use hashed and salted passwords:
e12f8011 629 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "EncodedColumn");
efdaddec 630
632=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use EncodedColumn
3b1fa91b 634Open the file C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/> and enter the following
efdaddec 635text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
636the closing "1;":
638 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 10-character salt
639 # with hex encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
640 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
641 'password' => {
efdaddec 642 encode_column => 1,
643 encode_class => 'Digest',
644 encode_args => {salt_length => 10},
645 encode_check_method => 'check_password',
646 },
647 );
649This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password
650fields at the top of the Result Class file to now use EncodedColumn
651logic (C<encoded_column> is set to 1). C<encode_class> can be set to
652either C<Digest> to use
654or C<Crypt::Eksblowfish::Bcrypt> for
656C<encode_args> is then used to customize the type of Digest you
657selected. Here we only specified the size of the salt to use, but
658we could have also modified the hashing algorithm ('SHA-256' is
659the default) and the format to use ('base64' is the default, but
660'hex' and 'binary' are other options). To use these, you could
661change the C<encode_args> to something like:
663 encode_args => {algorithm => 'SHA-1',
664 format => 'hex',
665 salt_length => 10},
668=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
670Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted passwords
671into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the file
672C<> in your editor and enter the following text:
674 #!/usr/bin/perl
676 use strict;
677 use warnings;
679 use MyApp::Schema;
681 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
3b1fa91b 683 my @users = $schema->resultset('User')->all;
efdaddec 684
685 foreach my $user (@users) {
686 $user->password('mypass');
687 $user->update;
688 }
690EncodedColumn lets us simple call C<$user->check_password($password)>
691to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
692above, call C<$user->update($new_password)> to update the hashed
693password stored for this user.
695Then run the following command:
2a6eb5f9 697 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
efdaddec 698
c12b0d35 699We had to use the C<-Ilib> argument to tell perl to look under the
efdaddec 700C<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
2a6eb5f9 702The DBIC_TRACE output should show that the update worked:
704 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
cc0ef55e 705 SELECT, me.username, me.password, me.email_address,
706 me.first_name, me.last_name, FROM user me:
707 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
708 'oXiyAcGOjowz7ISUhpIm1IrS8AxSZ9r4jNjpX9VnVeQmN6GRtRKTz', '1'
709 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
710 'PmyEPrkB8EGwvaF/DvJm7LIfxoZARjv8ygFIR7pc1gEA1OfwHGNzs', '2'
711 UPDATE user SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
712 'h7CS1Fm9UCs4hjcbu2im0HumaHCJUq4Uriac+SQgdUMUfFSoOrz3c', '3'
2a6eb5f9 713
714But we can further confirm our actions by dumping the users table:
efdaddec 715
3b1fa91b 716 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from user"
efdaddec 717 1|test01|38d3974fa9e9263099f7bc2574284b2f55473a9bM=fwpX2NR8||Joe|Blow|1
718 2|test02|6ed8586587e53e0d7509b1cfed5df08feadc68cbMJlnPyPt0I||Jane|Doe|1
719 3|test03|af929a151340c6aed4d54d7e2651795d1ad2e2f7UW8dHoGv9z||No|Go|0
721As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the
444d6b27 722database (not only are the hashes stored, but every hash is different
723even though the passwords are the same because of the added "salt"
724value). Also note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class
efdaddec 725model outside of your web application -- a very useful feature in many
729=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
cc0ef55e 731Edit C<lib/> and update it to match the following text (the
732only change is to the C<password_type> field):
efdaddec 733
734 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
735 __PACKAGE__->config->{'Plugin::Authentication'} = {
736 default => {
737 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 738 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 739 password_type => 'self_check',
740 },
741 };
743The use of C<self_check> will cause
744Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC to call the
745C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 746
1390ef0e 747
d442cc9f 748=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
3c700304 750The development server should restart as soon as your save the
751C<lib/> file in the previous section. You should now be able to
752go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and login as before. When
753done, click the "logout" link on the login page (or point your browser
754at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 755
d442cc9f 756
4b4d3884 759As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
760you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
761will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
762is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
763authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
764those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
765redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the L<Basic
3ab6187c 766CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD> chapter of the tutorial to
4b4d3884 767take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 768
769First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 770to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
771has changed):
d442cc9f 772
905a3a26 773 =head2 delete
efdaddec 774
d442cc9f 775 Delete a book
efdaddec 776
d442cc9f 777 =cut
efdaddec 778
fbbb9084 779 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
780 my ($self, $c) = @_;
efdaddec 781
fbbb9084 782 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
783 # with related 'book_authors' entries
784 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
efdaddec 785
d442cc9f 786 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
787 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
efdaddec 788
3533daff 789 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 790 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 791 }
1390ef0e 793Next, open C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 794flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 796 ...
d442cc9f 797 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 798 [%# Status and error messages %]
799 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
800 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
801 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
802 [% content %]
803 </div><!-- end content -->
804 ...
905a3a26 805
636ba9f7 806Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the
cc0ef55e 807rest of the file intact -- the only change we made to replace
808"|| c.request.params.status_msg" with "c.flash.status_msg" in the
809C<< <span class="message"> >> line.
d442cc9f 810
812=head2 Try Out Flash
3c700304 814Authenticate using the login screen and then point your browser to
636ba9f7 815L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
816several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
817"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 818"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 819
820B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
821I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
822exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
823the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
824after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
825L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session|Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
1390ef0e 828
3533daff 829=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
636ba9f7 831Although the a use of flash above works well, the
1390ef0e 832C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 833alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
1390ef0e 834copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your controller
905a3a26 835and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
fbbb9084 836forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
905a3a26 837set the value in C<lib/> by changing the default
3533daff 838C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
840 __PACKAGE__->config(
efdaddec 841 name => 'MyApp',
3c700304 842 # Disable deprecated behavior needed by old applications
843 disable_component_resolution_regex_fallback => 1,
da59dbea 844 session => { flash_to_stash => 1 },
3533daff 845 );
45d511e0 847B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 848
45d511e0 849 <session>
850 flash_to_stash 1
851 </session>
3533daff 852
905a3a26 853The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
854since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 855possibly breaking some of your code.
1390ef0e 857Then edit C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the C<status_msg> line
858to match the following:
3533daff 859
860 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
3c700304 862Now go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete
863another of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should
864still maintain the status message across the redirect even though you
865are no longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 866
d442cc9f 867
868=head1 AUTHOR
870Kennedy Clark, C<>
872Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The
873most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
59884771 874L<>.
d442cc9f 875
45c7830f 876Copyright 2006-2008, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License
95674086 877(L<>).