Update for VM
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / 05_Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
3ab6187c 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
4b4d3884 8This is B<Chapter 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
3ab6187c 16L<Introduction|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>
d442cc9f 17
18=item 2
3ab6187c 20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::02_CatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 21
22=item 3
3ab6187c 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3ab6187c 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3ab6187c 32B<05_Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3ab6187c 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3ab6187c 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::07_Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3ab6187c 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::08_Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3ab6187c 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::09_AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3ab6187c 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::10_Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
e18d15c9 61L<Chapter 6|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>).
d442cc9f 62
e18d15c9 63This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1)
64basic, cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
d442cc9f 65
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
2217b252 68L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro>.
d442cc9f 69
fbbb9084 70
d442cc9f 71=head1 BASIC AUTHENTICATION
73This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
77=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
79First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
80add the role information here although it will not be used until the
e18d15c9 81authorization section, Chapter 6). Create a new SQL script file by
82opening C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
d442cc9f 83
84 --
861a0cdd 85 -- Add users and role tables, along with a many-to-many join table
d442cc9f 86 --
3c700304 87 PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON;
861a0cdd 88 CREATE TABLE users (
d442cc9f 89 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
90 username TEXT,
91 password TEXT,
92 email_address TEXT,
93 first_name TEXT,
94 last_name TEXT,
95 active INTEGER
96 );
3b1fa91b 97 CREATE TABLE role (
d442cc9f 98 id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
99 role TEXT
100 );
3b1fa91b 101 CREATE TABLE user_role (
d442cc9f 104 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
105 );
106 --
107 -- Load up some initial test data
108 --
861a0cdd 109 INSERT INTO users VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', 't01@na.com', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
110 INSERT INTO users VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', 't02@na.com', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
111 INSERT INTO users VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', 't03@na.com', 'No', 'Go', 0);
3b1fa91b 112 INSERT INTO role VALUES (1, 'user');
113 INSERT INTO role VALUES (2, 'admin');
114 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 1);
115 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 2);
116 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (2, 1);
117 INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (3, 1);
d442cc9f 118
119Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
121 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
444d6b27 123
d442cc9f 124=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 126Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
e18d15c9 127the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the
128C<create=static> option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work
129for us:
d442cc9f 130
acbd7bdd 131 $ script/myapp_create.pl model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
b66dd084 132 create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
133 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
1390ef0e 134 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
135 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
136 Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
137 Schema dump completed.
138 exists "/root/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/DB.pm"
139 $
acbd7bdd 140 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result
3b1fa91b 141 Author.pm BookAuthor.pm Book.pm Role.pm User.pm UserRole.pm
d442cc9f 142
3c700304 143Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific Result Source
acbd7bdd 144files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result> directory. And, more
905a3a26 145importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
146files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
191dee29 147MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-edited
3533daff 148enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 149
e18d15c9 150Speaking of "hand-edited enhancements," we should now add the
861a0cdd 151C<many_to_many> relationship information to the User Result Source file.
e18d15c9 152As with the Book, BookAuthor, and Author files in L<Chapter
154L<DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader> has automatically created the C<has_many>
155and C<belongs_to> relationships for the new User, UserRole, and Role
156tables. However, as a convenience for mapping Users to their assigned
157roles (see L<Chapter 6|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::06_Authorization>),
158we will also manually add a C<many_to_many> relationship. Edit
861a0cdd 159C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> add the following information between
160the C<# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing
d442cc9f 162
3533daff 163 # many_to_many():
164 # args:
165 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 166 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
167 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 168 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
046fbe4f 169 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'user_roles', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 170
861a0cdd 171The code for this update is obviously very similar to the edits we made
172to the C<Book> and C<Author> classes created in Chapter 3 with one
173exception: we only defined the C<many_to_many> relationship in one
174direction. Whereas we felt that we would want to map Authors to Books
175B<AND> Books to Authors, here we are only adding the convenience
176C<many_to_many> in the Users to Roles direction.
3533daff 177
636ba9f7 178Note that we do not need to make any change to the
e18d15c9 179C<lib/MyApp/Schema.pm> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to load all of
180the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds in below the
181C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick up our new
182table information.
d442cc9f 183
3c700304 185=head2 Sanity-Check of the Development Server Reload
d442cc9f 186
861a0cdd 187We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want to
188do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Assuming that you
189are following along and using the "-r" option on C<myapp_server.pl>,
190then the development server should automatically reload (if not, press
191C<Ctrl-C> to break out of the server if it's running and then enter
192C<script/myapp_server.pl> to start it). Look for the three new model
193objects in the startup debug output:
d442cc9f 194
195 ...
196 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
197 | Class | Type |
198 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
199 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
200 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 201 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
202 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
3b1fa91b 203 | MyApp::Model::DB::Book | class |
204 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthor | class |
205 | MyApp::Model::DB::Role | class |
206 | MyApp::Model::DB::User | class |
207 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRole | class |
1edbdee6 208 | MyApp::View::HTML | instance |
d442cc9f 209 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
210 ...
e18d15c9 212Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded" by
213Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 214
216=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 218Edit C<lib/MyApp.pm> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 219C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 220
acbd7bdd 221 # Load plugins
2a6eb5f9 222 use Catalyst qw/
3c700304 223 -Debug
224 ConfigLoader
225 Static::Simple
8fefbef8 226
3c700304 227 StackTrace
8fefbef8 228
3c700304 229 Authentication
8fefbef8 230
3c700304 231 Session
95455c74 232 Session::Store::File
3c700304 233 Session::State::Cookie
234 /;
d442cc9f 235
636ba9f7 236B<Note:> As discussed in MoreCatalystBasics, different versions of
444d6b27 237C<Catalyst::Devel> have used a variety of methods to load the plugins,
238but we are going to use the current Catalyst 5.8X practice of putting
239them on the C<use Catalyst> line.
94d8da41 240
905a3a26 241The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
242C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 244
905a3a26 245Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
e18d15c9 246is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the C<Authentication>
247plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular Authentication::Store
248or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead, indicate the Store and
249Credential you want to use in your application configuration (see
6d0971ad 251
e18d15c9 252Make sure you include the additional plugins as new dependencies in the
253Makefile.PL file something like this:
3b1fa91b 254
e12f8011 255 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication';
256 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session';
95455c74 257 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File';
e12f8011 258 requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie';
3b1fa91b 259
905a3a26 260Note that there are several options for
3c700304 261L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store>.
e18d15c9 262L<Session::Store::Memcached|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::Memcached>
263is generally a good choice if you are on Unix. If you are running on
264Windows L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File>
265is fine. Consult L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and
266its subclasses for additional information and options (for example to
267use a database- backed session store).
d442cc9f 268
270=head2 Configure Authentication
3b1fa91b 272There are a variety of ways to provide configuration information to
e18d15c9 273L<Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication>. Here we will use
274L<Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB> because it automatically
275sets a reasonable set of defaults for us. Open C<lib/MyApp.pm> and place
276the following text above the call to C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>setup();>:
efdaddec 277
278 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
19a5b486 279 __PACKAGE__->config(
280 'Plugin::Authentication' => {
efdaddec 281 default => {
282 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 283 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 284 password_type => 'clear',
285 },
19a5b486 286 },
287 );
efdaddec 288
e18d15c9 289We could have placed this configuration in C<myapp.conf>, but placing it
290in C<lib/MyApp.pm> is probably a better place since it's not likely
861a0cdd 291something that users of your application will want to change during
e18d15c9 292deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave C<class> and C<user_model>
293defined in C<lib/MyApp.pm> as we show above, but place C<password_type>
294in C<myapp.conf> to allow the type of password to be easily modified
295during deployment). We will stick with putting all of the
296authentication-related configuration in C<lib/MyApp.pm> for the
297tutorial, but if you wish to use C<myapp.conf>, just convert to the
298following code:
c3cf3bc3 299
300 <Plugin::Authentication>
c3cf3bc3 301 <default>
43707053 302 password_type clear
3b1fa91b 303 user_model DB::User
c3cf3bc3 304 class SimpleDB
305 </default>
306 </Plugin::Authentication>
861a0cdd 308B<TIP:> Here is a short script that will dump the contents of
e18d15c9 309C<MyApp->config> to L<Config::General> format in C<myapp.conf>:
c3cf3bc3 310
861a0cdd 311 $ CATALYST_DEBUG=0 perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
c3cf3bc3 312 Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'
d442cc9f 313
3c700304 314B<HOWEVER>, if you try out the command above, be sure to delete the
315"myapp.conf" command. Otherwise, you will wind up with duplicate
e18d15c9 318B<NOTE:> Because we are using SimpleDB along with a database layout that
319complies with its default assumptions: we don't need to specify the
320names of the columns where our username and password information is
321stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB"). That being said,
322SimpleDB lets you specify that type of information if you need to. Take
323a look at
c4fa597d 324C<Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB|Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB>
325for details.
1390ef0e 327
d442cc9f 328=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
fa59770d 330Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
d442cc9f 331
fa59770d 332 $ script/myapp_create.pl controller Login
333 $ script/myapp_create.pl controller Logout
d442cc9f 334
fa59770d 335You could easily use a single controller here. For example, you could
336have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout> actions.
636ba9f7 337Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves such
fbbb9084 338matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
d442cc9f 339
fa59770d 340Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Login.pm>, locate the
e18d15c9 341C<sub index :Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you are
342using an older version of Catalyst) that was automatically inserted by
343the helpers when we created the Login controller above, and update the
344definition of C<sub index> to match:
d442cc9f 345
fa59770d 346 =head2 index
8fefbef8 347
d442cc9f 348 Login logic
8fefbef8 349
d442cc9f 350 =cut
8fefbef8 351
fa59770d 352 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 353 my ($self, $c) = @_;
8fefbef8 354
d442cc9f 355 # Get the username and password from form
ab0bd0bb 356 my $username = $c->request->params->{username};
357 my $password = $c->request->params->{password};
8fefbef8 358
d442cc9f 359 # If the username and password values were found in form
ab0bd0bb 360 if ($username && $password) {
d442cc9f 361 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 362 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
5fefca35 363 password => $password } )) {
d442cc9f 364 # If successful, then let them use the application
0416017e 365 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for(
366 $c->controller('Books')->action_for('list')));
fa59770d 367 return;
d442cc9f 368 } else {
fa59770d 369 # Set an error message
0ed3df53 370 $c->stash(error_msg => "Bad username or password.");
d442cc9f 371 }
ab0bd0bb 372 } else {
fa59770d 373 # Set an error message
b6ff4050 374 $c->stash(error_msg => "Empty username or password.")
375 unless ($c->user_exists);
d442cc9f 376 }
8fefbef8 377
d442cc9f 378 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
0ed3df53 379 $c->stash(template => 'login.tt2');
d442cc9f 380 }
861a0cdd 382Be sure to remove the
fa59770d 383C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Login in Login.');>
384line of the C<sub index>.
d442cc9f 386This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 387login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
388redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
389will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
e18d15c9 390C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the user
391will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 392
636ba9f7 393Note that we could have used something like "C<sub default :Path>",
e18d15c9 394however, it is generally recommended (partly for historical reasons, and
395partly for code clarity) only to use C<default> in
636ba9f7 396C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
85d49fb6 397found page for the application.
ae492862 398
fa59770d 399Instead, we are using "C<sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}>" here to
400specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
e18d15c9 401actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the controller
402where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports arguments that allow
403relative and absolute paths to be defined, here we use an empty C<Path>
404definition to match on just the name of the controller itself. The
405method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make the match even more
406specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier -- this forces the match
407on I<only> C</login>, not C</login/somethingelse>.
d442cc9f 408
905a3a26 409Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 410C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Logout.pm> to match:
d442cc9f 411
412 =head2 index
8fefbef8 413
d442cc9f 414 Logout logic
8fefbef8 415
d442cc9f 416 =cut
8fefbef8 417
ae492862 418 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 419 my ($self, $c) = @_;
8fefbef8 420
d442cc9f 421 # Clear the user's state
422 $c->logout;
8fefbef8 423
d442cc9f 424 # Send the user to the starting point
425 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
426 }
905a3a26 428As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 429C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 430line of the C<sub index>.
433=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
435Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
437 [% META title = 'Login' %]
8fefbef8 438
d442cc9f 439 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 440 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 441 <table>
442 <tr>
443 <td>Username:</td>
444 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
445 </tr>
446 <tr>
447 <td>Password:</td>
448 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
449 </tr>
450 <tr>
451 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
452 </tr>
453 </table>
454 </form>
457=head2 Add Valid User Check
459We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
460mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
461passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
861a0cdd 462This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method in
444d6b27 463C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Root.pm>.
d442cc9f 464
465Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Root.pm> class file and insert
466the following method:
468 =head2 auto
8fefbef8 469
d442cc9f 470 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
8fefbef8 471
d442cc9f 472 =cut
8fefbef8 473
d442cc9f 474 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 475 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 476 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
ddfbd850 477 sub auto :Private {
d442cc9f 478 my ($self, $c) = @_;
8fefbef8 479
d442cc9f 480 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
191dee29 481 # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
d442cc9f 482 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
483 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 484 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 485 # added above.
486 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
487 return 1;
488 }
8fefbef8 489
d442cc9f 490 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
491 if (!$c->user_exists) {
492 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
493 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
494 # Redirect the user to the login page
495 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
496 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
497 return 0;
498 }
8fefbef8 499
d442cc9f 500 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
501 return 1;
502 }
636ba9f7 504As discussed in
3ab6187c 505L<Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics/CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER>,
636ba9f7 506every C<auto> method from the application/root controller down to the
e18d15c9 507most specific controller will be called. By placing the authentication
508enforcement code inside the C<auto> method of
509C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Root.pm> (or C<lib/MyApp.pm>), it will be called
510for I<every> request that is received by the entire application.
d442cc9f 511
513=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
515Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
516changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
517this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
518lines to the bottom of the file:
acbd7bdd 520 ...
d442cc9f 521 <p>
522 [%
905a3a26 523 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 524 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
525 %]
8a7c5151 526 [% IF c.user_exists %]
527 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
528 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 529 [% ELSE %]
530 You need to log in to use this application.
531 [% END %]
532 [%#
533 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 534 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
535 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
536 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 537 comments.
538 %]
3533daff 539 </p>
d442cc9f 540
541Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
542"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
543page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
544authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
545use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
548=head2 Try Out Authentication
861a0cdd 550The development server should have reloaded each time we edited one of
3e1a2240 551the Controllers in the previous section. Now try going to
861a0cdd 552L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should be redirected to the
553login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload if necessary (the "You
554are already logged in" message should I<not> appear -- if it does, click
555the C<logout> button and try again). Note the C<***Root::auto User not
556found...> debug message in the development server output. Enter username
557C<test01> and password C<mypass>, and you should be taken to the Book
558List page.
d442cc9f 559
636ba9f7 560B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
561Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
562server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
acbd7bdd 563timestamps for cookies. You can quickly sync a Debian system by
564installing the "ntpdate" package:
566 sudo aptitude -y install ntpdate
568And then run the following command:
25ed8f40 569
acbd7bdd 570 sudo ntpdate-debian
d442cc9f 571
acbd7bdd 572Or, depending on your firewall configuration:
574 sudo ntpdate-debian -u
636ba9f7 576Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses
acbd7bdd 577UDP vs. the more common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.
578Worse case, you might have to manually set the time on your development
579box instead of using NTP.
1390ef0e 580
d442cc9f 581Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 582bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 583
aa7ff325 584 ...
d442cc9f 585 <p>
8a7c5151 586 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
0416017e 587 <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 588 </p>
905a3a26 590Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
591at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
e18d15c9 592files without a development server reload). Click the first link to
593return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 594already logged in" message.
596Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
597You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
598need to log in to use this application."
861a0cdd 603In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
e18d15c9 604from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a random
605"salt" value to make them extremely difficult to crack with dictionary
606and "rainbow table" attacks.
d442cc9f 607
608B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
609tutorial will function normally.
e18d15c9 611Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the
612browser still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application.
613We are just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the
614database by using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about
615cleartext passwords between the browser and your application, consider
616using SSL/TLS, made easy with the Catalyst plugin
d442cc9f 618
436f45da 620=head2 Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::PassphraseColumn
d442cc9f 621
861a0cdd 622Next, we can re-run the model helper to have it include
e18d15c9 623L<DBIx::Class::PassphraseColumn> in all of the Result Classes it
624generates for us. Simply use the same command we saw in Chapters 3 and
6254, but add C<,PassphraseColumn> to the C<components> argument:
d442cc9f 626
efdaddec 627 $ script/myapp_create.pl model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
436f45da 628 create=static components=TimeStamp,PassphraseColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
b66dd084 629 on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
d442cc9f 630
861a0cdd 631If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it
e18d15c9 632includes PassphraseColumn in the C<load_components> line. Take a look
633at C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> since that's the main class where
634we want to use hashed and salted passwords:
efdaddec 635
436f45da 636 __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "PassphraseColumn");
efdaddec 637
436f45da 639=head2 Modify the "password" Column to Use PassphraseColumn
efdaddec 640
3b1fa91b 641Open the file C<lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/User.pm> and enter the following
efdaddec 642text below the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above
643the closing "1;":
436f45da 645 # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 20-byte salt
646 # with RFC 2307 encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
efdaddec 647 __PACKAGE__->add_columns(
648 'password' => {
436f45da 649 passphrase => 'rfc2307',
650 passphrase_class => 'SaltedDigest',
651 passphrase_args => {
652 algorithm => 'SHA-1',
653 salt_random => 20.
654 },
655 passphrase_check_method => 'check_password',
efdaddec 656 },
657 );
e18d15c9 659This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password
660fields at the top of the Result Class file to now use PassphraseColumn
661logic, storing passwords in RFC 2307 format (C<passphrase> is set to
662C<rfc2307>). C<passphrase_class> can be set to the name of any
663C<Authen::Passphrase::*> class, such as C<SaltedDigest> to use
664L<Authen::Passphrase::SaltedDigest>, or C<BlowfishCrypt> to use
665L<Authen::Passphrase::BlowfishCrypt>. C<passphrase_args> is then used
666to customize the passphrase class you selected. Here we specified the
667digest algorithm to use as C<SHA-1> and the size of the salt to use, but
668we could have also specified any other option the selected passphrase
669class supports.
efdaddec 671
672=head2 Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
e18d15c9 674Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted
675passwords into the C<password> column of our C<users> table. Open the
676file C<set_hashed_passwords.pl> in your editor and enter the following
efdaddec 678
679 #!/usr/bin/perl
8fefbef8 680
efdaddec 681 use strict;
682 use warnings;
8fefbef8 683
efdaddec 684 use MyApp::Schema;
8fefbef8 685
efdaddec 686 my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');
8fefbef8 687
3b1fa91b 688 my @users = $schema->resultset('User')->all;
8fefbef8 689
efdaddec 690 foreach my $user (@users) {
691 $user->password('mypass');
692 $user->update;
693 }
436f45da 695PassphraseColumn lets us simply call C<$user->check_password($password)>
861a0cdd 696to see if the user has supplied the correct password, or, as we show
697above, call C<$user->update($new_password)> to update the hashed
efdaddec 698password stored for this user.
700Then run the following command:
2a6eb5f9 702 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib set_hashed_passwords.pl
efdaddec 703
861a0cdd 704We had to use the C<-Ilib> argument to tell perl to look under the
efdaddec 705C<lib> directory for our C<MyApp::Schema> model.
2a6eb5f9 707The DBIC_TRACE output should show that the update worked:
709 $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib set_hashed_passwords.pl
861a0cdd 710 SELECT me.id, me.username, me.password, me.email_address,
711 me.first_name, me.last_name, me.active FROM users me:
712 UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
436f45da 713 '{SSHA}esgz64CpHMo8pMfgIIszP13ft23z/zio04aCwNdm0wc6MDeloMUH4g==', '1'
861a0cdd 714 UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
436f45da 715 '{SSHA}FpGhpCJus+Ea9ne4ww8404HH+hJKW/fW+bAv1v6FuRUy2G7I2aoTRQ==', '2'
861a0cdd 716 UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
436f45da 717 '{SSHA}ZyGlpiHls8qFBSbHr3r5t/iqcZE602XLMbkSVRRNl6rF8imv1abQVg==', '3'
2a6eb5f9 718
719But we can further confirm our actions by dumping the users table:
efdaddec 720
861a0cdd 721 $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from users"
436f45da 722 1|test01|{SSHA}esgz64CpHMo8pMfgIIszP13ft23z/zio04aCwNdm0wc6MDeloMUH4g==|t01@na.com|Joe|Blow|1
723 2|test02|{SSHA}FpGhpCJus+Ea9ne4ww8404HH+hJKW/fW+bAv1v6FuRUy2G7I2aoTRQ==|t02@na.com|Jane|Doe|1
724 3|test03|{SSHA}ZyGlpiHls8qFBSbHr3r5t/iqcZE602XLMbkSVRRNl6rF8imv1abQVg==|t03@na.com|No|Go|0
efdaddec 725
e18d15c9 726As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the database
727(not only are the hashes stored, but every hash is different even though
728the passwords are the same because of the added "salt" value). Also
729note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class model outside of
730your web application -- a very useful feature in many situations.
efdaddec 731
733=head2 Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
e18d15c9 735Edit C<lib/MyApp.pm> and update it to match the following text (the only
736change is to the C<password_type> field):
efdaddec 737
738 # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
19a5b486 739 __PACKAGE__->config(
740 'Plugin::Authentication' => {
efdaddec 741 default => {
742 class => 'SimpleDB',
3b1fa91b 743 user_model => 'DB::User',
efdaddec 744 password_type => 'self_check',
745 },
19a5b486 746 },
747 );
efdaddec 748
861a0cdd 749The use of C<self_check> will cause
750Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC to call the
efdaddec 751C<check_password> method we enabled on our C<password> columns.
d442cc9f 752
1390ef0e 753
d442cc9f 754=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
861a0cdd 756The development server should restart as soon as your save the
757C<lib/MyApp.pm> file in the previous section. You should now be able to
758go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and login as before. When
759done, click the "logout" link on the login page (or point your browser
760at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 761
d442cc9f 762
861a0cdd 765As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, C<flash> allows
766you to set variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it
e18d15c9 767will remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it is
768cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
861a0cdd 769authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
770those plugins are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and
e18d15c9 771redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the
772L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::04_BasicCRUD> chapter of the
773tutorial to take advantage of C<flash>.
d442cc9f 774
e18d15c9 775First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/Books.pm> and modify C<sub delete> to
776match the following (everything after the model search line of code has
d442cc9f 778
905a3a26 779 =head2 delete
8fefbef8 780
d442cc9f 781 Delete a book
8fefbef8 782
d442cc9f 783 =cut
8fefbef8 784
fbbb9084 785 sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
786 my ($self, $c) = @_;
8fefbef8 787
fbbb9084 788 # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
789 # with related 'book_authors' entries
790 $c->stash->{object}->delete;
8fefbef8 791
d442cc9f 792 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
793 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
8fefbef8 794
3533daff 795 # Redirect the user back to the list page
0416017e 796 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for($self->action_for('list')));
d442cc9f 797 }
1390ef0e 799Next, open C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 800flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
1390ef0e 802 ...
d442cc9f 803 <div id="content">
1390ef0e 804 [%# Status and error messages %]
805 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
806 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
807 [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
808 [% content %]
809 </div><!-- end content -->
810 ...
905a3a26 811
e18d15c9 812Although the sample above only shows the C<content> div, leave the rest
813of the file intact -- the only change we made to replace "||
814c.request.params.status_msg" with "c.flash.status_msg" in the
815C<E<lt>span class="message"E<gt>> line.
d442cc9f 816
818=head2 Try Out Flash
3c700304 820Authenticate using the login screen and then point your browser to
636ba9f7 821L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
822several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
823"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 824"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 825
826B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
827I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
e18d15c9 828exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on the
829next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up" after
830that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
831L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional information.
d442cc9f 832
1390ef0e 833
3533daff 834=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
e18d15c9 836Although the use of flash above works well, the
1390ef0e 837C<status_msg || c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 838alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
e18d15c9 839copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your controller and
840template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
841forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either set
842the value in C<lib/MyApp.pm> by changing the default
3533daff 843C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
845 __PACKAGE__->config(
efdaddec 846 name => 'MyApp',
3c700304 847 # Disable deprecated behavior needed by old applications
848 disable_component_resolution_regex_fallback => 1,
13dadd45 849 'Plugin::Session' => { flash_to_stash => 1 },
3533daff 850 );
45d511e0 852B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 853
13dadd45 854 <Plugin::Session>
45d511e0 855 flash_to_stash 1
13dadd45 856 </Plugin::Session>
3533daff 857
e18d15c9 858The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here since
859it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 860possibly breaking some of your code.
e18d15c9 862Then edit C<root/src/wrapper.tt2> and change the C<status_msg> line to
863match the following:
3533daff 864
865 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
861a0cdd 867Now go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete
868another of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should
869still maintain the status message across the redirect even though you
870are no longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 871
d442cc9f 872
873=head1 AUTHOR
875Kennedy Clark, C<hkclark@gmail.com>
53243324 877Feel free to contact the author for any errors or suggestions, but the
878best way to report issues is via the CPAN RT Bug system at
881The most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
59884771 882L<http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/repos/Catalyst/Catalyst-Manual/5.80/trunk/lib/Catalyst/Manual/Tutorial/>.
d442cc9f 883
ec3ef4ad 884Copyright 2006-2010, Kennedy Clark, under the
885Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike License Version 3.0
95674086 886(L<http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/>).