Convert schema to MyApp::Schema, convert model to DB, misc adjustments
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
3533daff 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Part 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
3533daff 8This is B<Part 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
18=item 2
20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::CatalystBasics>
22=item 3
3533daff 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3533daff 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3533daff 32B<Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3533daff 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3533daff 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3533daff 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3533daff 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3533daff 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
3533daff 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
d442cc9f 61Part 5).
63This part of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
72This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
76=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
78First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
79add the role information here although it will not be used until the
80authorization section, Part 5). Create a new SQL script file by opening
81C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
83 --
84 -- Add users and roles tables, along with a many-to-many join table
85 --
86 CREATE TABLE users (
88 username TEXT,
89 password TEXT,
90 email_address TEXT,
91 first_name TEXT,
92 last_name TEXT,
93 active INTEGER
94 );
95 CREATE TABLE roles (
97 role TEXT
98 );
99 CREATE TABLE user_roles (
100 user_id INTEGER,
101 role_id INTEGER,
102 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
103 );
104 --
105 -- Load up some initial test data
106 --
107 INSERT INTO users VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', '', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
108 INSERT INTO users VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', '', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
109 INSERT INTO users VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', '', 'No', 'Go', 0);
110 INSERT INTO roles VALUES (1, 'user');
111 INSERT INTO roles VALUES (2, 'admin');
112 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (1, 1);
113 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (1, 2);
114 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (2, 1);
115 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (3, 1);
117Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
119 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
122=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 124Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
125the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
126option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 127
d0496197 128 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema create=static dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
129 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema
3533daff 130
d442cc9f 131
3533daff 132Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific result source
133files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/MyApp> directory. And, more
134importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
135files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
136MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-editted
137enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 138
d442cc9f 139
3533daff 140Speaking of "hand-editted enhancements," we should now add
141relationship information to the three new result source files. Edit
142each of these files and add the following information between the C<#
143DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing C<1;>:
d442cc9f 144
d0496197 145C<lib/MyApp/Schema/>:
d442cc9f 146
d442cc9f 147 #
148 # Set relationships:
149 #
151 # has_many():
152 # args:
153 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
154 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
155 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table
d0496197 156 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_role => 'MyApp::Schema::UserRoles', 'user_id');
d442cc9f 157
3533daff 158 # many_to_many():
159 # args:
160 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
161 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
162 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
163 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
164 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'map_user_role', 'role');
d442cc9f 165
d0496197 167C<lib/MyApp/Schema/>:
d442cc9f 168
d442cc9f 169 #
170 # Set relationships:
171 #
173 # has_many():
174 # args:
175 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
176 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
177 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table
d0496197 178 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_role => 'MyApp::Schema::UserRoles', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 179
d0496197 181C<lib/MyApp/Schema/>:
d442cc9f 182
d442cc9f 183 #
184 # Set relationships:
185 #
187 # belongs_to():
188 # args:
189 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
190 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
191 # 3) Column name in *this* table
d0496197 192 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(user => 'MyApp::Schema::Users', 'user_id');
d442cc9f 193
194 # belongs_to():
195 # args:
196 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
197 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
198 # 3) Column name in *this* table
d0496197 199 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(role => 'MyApp::Schema::Roles', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 200
3533daff 201
202The code for these three sets of updates is obviously very similar to
203the edits we made to the C<Books>, C<Authors>, and C<BookAuthors>
204classes created in Part 3.
206Note that we do not need to make any change to the
d0496197 207C<lib/MyApp/> schema file. It simple tells DBIC to
3533daff 208load all of the result source files it finds in below the
d0496197 209C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick
3533daff 210up our new table information.
d442cc9f 211
213=head2 Sanity-Check Reload of Development Server
3533daff 215We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want
216to do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Press
217C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still running)
218and restart it:
d442cc9f 219
220 $ script/
222Look for the three new model objects in the startup debug output:
224 ...
225 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
226 | Class | Type |
227 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
228 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
229 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 230 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
231 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
232 | MyApp::Model::DB::Books | class |
233 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthors | class |
234 | MyApp::Model::DB::Roles | class |
235 | MyApp::Model::DB::Users | class |
236 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRoles | class |
d442cc9f 237 | MyApp::View::TT | instance |
238 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
239 ...
3533daff 241Again, notice that your "result source" classes have been "re-loaded"
242by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 243
245=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
3533daff 247Edit C<lib/> and update it as follows (everything below
248C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 249
250 use Catalyst qw/
251 -Debug
252 ConfigLoader
253 Static::Simple
255 StackTrace
257 Authentication
d442cc9f 258
259 Session
260 Session::Store::FastMmap
261 Session::State::Cookie
262 /;
3533daff 264The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
265C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 267
3533daff 268Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
269is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
270C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
271Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
272indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 273configuration (see below).
3533daff 275Note that there are several options for
278is generally a good choice if you are on Unix; try
279L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File> if you
280are on Win32) -- consult
281L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
282for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
283backed session store).
d442cc9f 284
286=head2 Configure Authentication
3533daff 288Although C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config(name =E<gt> 'value');> is still
289supported, newer Catalyst applications tend to place all configuration
15e1d0b2 290information in C<myapp.conf> and automatically load this information
3533daff 291into C<MyApp-E<gt>config> using the
15e1d0b2 292L<ConfigLoader|Catalyst::Plugin::ConfigLoader> plugin.
294First, as noted in Part 3 of the tutorial, Catalyst has recently
295switched from a default config file format of YAML to
296C<Config::General> (an apache-like format). In case you are using
297a version of Catalyst earlier than v5.7014, delete the C<myapp.yml>
298file and simply follow the directions below to create a new
299C<myapp.conf> file.
301Here, we need to load several parameters that tell
3533daff 302L<Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication|Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication>
d442cc9f 303where to locate information in your database. To do this, edit the
c010ae0d 304C<myapp.conf> file and update it to match:
306 name MyApp
307 <authentication>
308 default_realm dbic
309 <realms>
310 <dbic>
311 <credential>
3533daff 312 # Note this first definition would be the same as setting
313 # __PACKAGE__->config->{authentication}->{realms}->{dbic}
314 # ->{credential} = 'Password' in lib/
3533daff 315 #
316 # Specify that we are going to do password-based auth
c010ae0d 317 class Password
3533daff 318 # This is the name of the field in the users table with the
319 # password stored in it
c010ae0d 320 password_field password
3533daff 321 # We are using an unencrypted password now
c010ae0d 322 password_type clear
323 </credential>
324 <store>
3533daff 325 # Use DBIC to retrieve username, password & role information
c010ae0d 326 class DBIx::Class
3533daff 327 # This is the model object created by Catalyst::Model::DBIC
d0496197 328 # from your schema (you created 'MyApp::Schema::User' but as
329 # the Catalyst startup debug messages show, it was loaded as
330 # 'MyApp::Model::DB::Users').
3533daff 331 # NOTE: Omit 'MyApp::Model' here just as you would when using
d0496197 332 # '$c->model("DB::Users)'
333 user_class DB::Users
3533daff 334 # This is the name of the field in your 'users' table that
335 # contains the user's name
c010ae0d 336 id_field username
337 </store>
338 </dbic>
d0496197 339 </realms>
340 </authentication>
d442cc9f 341
342Inline comments in the code above explain how each field is being used.
c010ae0d 344Note that you can use many other config file formats with catalyst.
345See L<Catalyst::Plugin::ConfigLoader|Catalyst::Plugin::ConfigLoader>
346for details.
d442cc9f 347
348=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
350Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
352 $ script/ controller Login
353 $ script/ controller Logout
d0496197 355B<NOTE:> You could easily use a single controller here. For example,
d442cc9f 356you could have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout>
357actions. Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves
358such matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
360Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>, locate the C<sub index :
361Private> method (this was automatically inserted by the helpers when we
362created the Login controller above), and delete this line:
364 $c->response->body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Login in Login.');
366Then update it to match:
368 =head2 index
370 Login logic
372 =cut
374 sub index : Private {
375 my ($self, $c) = @_;
377 # Get the username and password from form
378 my $username = $c->request->params->{username} || "";
379 my $password = $c->request->params->{password} || "";
381 # If the username and password values were found in form
382 if ($username && $password) {
383 # Attempt to log the user in
f632e28b 384 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
385 password => $password} )) {
d442cc9f 386 # If successful, then let them use the application
387 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/books/list'));
388 return;
389 } else {
390 # Set an error message
391 $c->stash->{error_msg} = "Bad username or password.";
392 }
393 }
395 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
396 $c->stash->{template} = 'login.tt2';
397 }
399This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
f632e28b 400login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
401redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
402will stay at the login page but receive an error message. If the
403C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
404user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 405
406Note that we could have used something like C<sub default :Private>;
407however, the use of C<default> actions is discouraged because it does
408not receive path args as with other actions. The recommended practice
409is to only use C<default> in C<MyApp::Controller::Root>.
411Another option would be to use something like
412C<sub base :Path :Args(0) {...}> (where the C<...> refers to the login
413code shown in C<sub index : Private> above). We are using C<sub base
414:Path :Args(0) {...}> here to specifically match the URL C</login>.
415C<Path> actions (aka, "literal actions") create URI matches relative to
416the namespace of the controller where they are defined. Although
417C<Path> supports arguments that allow relative and absolute paths to be
418defined, here we use an empty C<Path> definition to match on just the
419name of the controller itself. The method name, C<base>, is arbitrary.
420We make the match even more specific with the C<:Args(0)> action
421modifier -- this forces the match on I<only> C</login>, not
3533daff 424Next, update the corresponding method in
425C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> to match:
d442cc9f 426
427 =head2 index
429 Logout logic
431 =cut
433 sub index : Private {
434 my ($self, $c) = @_;
436 # Clear the user's state
437 $c->logout;
439 # Send the user to the starting point
440 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
441 }
443As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
444C<$c->response->body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
445line of the C<sub index>.
448=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
450Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
452 [% META title = 'Login' %]
454 <!-- Login form -->
455 <form method="post" action=" [% Catalyst.uri_for('/login') %] ">
456 <table>
457 <tr>
458 <td>Username:</td>
459 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
460 </tr>
461 <tr>
462 <td>Password:</td>
463 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
464 </tr>
465 <tr>
466 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
467 </tr>
468 </table>
469 </form>
472=head2 Add Valid User Check
474We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
475mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
476passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
477This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method (prior to Catalyst
478v5.66, this sort of thing would go in C<>, but starting in
479v5.66, the preferred location is C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>).
481Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> class file and insert
482the following method:
484 =head2 auto
486 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
488 =cut
490 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
491 # 'auto' "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
492 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
493 sub auto : Private {
494 my ($self, $c) = @_;
496 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
497 # allows anauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
498 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
499 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
500 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the C<index> action we
501 # added above.
502 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
503 return 1;
504 }
506 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
507 if (!$c->user_exists) {
508 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
509 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
510 # Redirect the user to the login page
511 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
512 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
513 return 0;
514 }
516 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
517 return 1;
518 }
3533daff 520
521B<Note:> Catalyst provides a number of different types of actions,
522such as C<Local>, C<Regex>, C<Private> and the new C<Path>. You
523should refer to L<Catalyst::Manual::Intro|Catalyst::Manual::Intro> for
524a more detailed explanation, but the following bullet points provide a
525quick introduction:
d442cc9f 526
527=over 4
529=item *
3533daff 531The majority of application have traditionally use C<Local> actions
532for items that respond to user requests and C<Private> actions for
533those that do not directly respond to user input.
d442cc9f 534
535=item *
3533daff 537Newer Catalyst applications tend to use C<Path> actions and the
538C<Args> attribute because of their power and flexibility. You can
539specify the path to match relative to the namespace of the current
540module as an argument to C<Path>. For example C<Path('list')> in
541C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> would match on the URL
542C<http://localhost:3000/books/list> but C<Path('/list')> would
543match on C<http://localhost:3000/list>.
545=item *
547Automatic "chaining" of actions by the dispatcher is a powerful
548feature that allows multiple methods to handle a single URL. See
550for more information on chained actions.
552=item *
554There are five types of build-in C<Private> actions: C<begin>, C<end>,
d442cc9f 555C<default>, C<index>, and C<auto>.
557=item *
559With C<begin>, C<end>, C<default>, C<index> private actions, only the
560most specific action of each type will be called. For example, if you
561define a C<begin> action in your controller it will I<override> a
562C<begin> action in your application/root controller -- I<only> the
563action in your controller will be called.
565=item *
567Unlike the other actions where only a single method is called for each
568request, I<every> auto action along the chain of namespaces will be
569called. Each C<auto> action will be called I<from the application/root
570controller down through the most specific class>.
574By placing the authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method
575of C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> (or C<lib/>), it will be
576called for I<every> request that is received by the entire application.
579=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
581Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
582changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
583this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
584lines to the bottom of the file:
586 <p>
587 [%
588 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
589 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
590 %]
591 [% IF Catalyst.user_exists %]
592 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% Catalyst.user.username %]'.
593 You can <a href="[% Catalyst.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
594 [% ELSE %]
595 You need to log in to use this application.
596 [% END %]
597 [%#
598 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
599 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
600 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
601 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
603 %]
3533daff 604 </p>
d442cc9f 605
606Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
607"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
608page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
609authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
610use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
613=head2 Try Out Authentication
615Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
616running) and restart it:
618 $ script/
d0496197 620B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you happen to be using Internet Explorer, you may
d442cc9f 621need to use the command C<script/ -k> to enable the
622keepalive feature in the development server. Otherwise, the HTTP
623redirect on successful login may not work correctly with IE (it seems to
624work without -k if you are running the web browser and development
625server on the same machine). If you are using browser a browser other
626than IE, it should work either way. If you want to make keepalive the
627default, you can edit C<script/> and change the
628initialization value for C<$keepalive> to C<1>. (You will need to do
629this every time you create a new Catalyst application or rebuild the
630C<> script.)
632Now trying going to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should
633be redirected to the login page, hitting Shift+Reload if necessary (the
634"You are already logged in" message should I<not> appear -- if it does,
635click the C<logout> button and try again). Note the C<***Root::auto User
636not found...> debug message in the development server output. Enter
637username C<test01> and password C<mypass>, and you should be taken to
638the Book List page.
640Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 641bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 642
643 <p>
644 <a href="[% Catalyst.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
645 <a href="[% Catalyst.uri_for('form_create') %]">Create</a>
646 </p>
648Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
649at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
650files without reloading the development server). Click the first link
651to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
652already logged in" message.
654Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
655You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
656need to log in to use this application."
661In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
662from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes.
664B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
665tutorial will function normally.
667Note that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
668still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
669just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
670using a SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
671between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
672easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
675=head2 Get a SHA-1 Hash for the Password
677Catalyst uses the C<Digest> module to support a variety of hashing
678algorithms. Here we will use SHA-1 (SHA = Secure Hash Algorithm).
679First, we should compute the SHA-1 hash for the "mypass" password we are
680using. The following command-line Perl script provides a "quick and
681dirty" way to do this:
683 $ perl -MDigest::SHA -e 'print Digest::SHA::sha1_hex("mypass"), "\n"'
684 e727d1464ae12436e899a726da5b2f11d8381b26
685 $
d0496197 687B<Note:> If you are following along in Ubuntu, you will need to install
688C<Digest::SHA> with the following command to run the example code above:
690 sudo apt-get install libdigest-sha-perl
d442cc9f 692B<Note:> You should probably modify this code for production use to
693not read the password from the command line. By having the script
694prompt for the cleartext password, it avoids having the password linger
695in forms such as your C<.bash_history> files (assuming you are using
696BASH as your shell). An example of such a script can be found in
697Appendix 3.
700=head2 Switch to SHA-1 Password Hashes in the Database
702Next, we need to change the C<password> column of our C<users> table to
703store this hash value vs. the existing cleartext password. Open
704C<myapp03.sql> in your editor and enter:
706 --
707 -- Convert passwords to SHA-1 hashes
708 --
709 UPDATE users SET password = 'e727d1464ae12436e899a726da5b2f11d8381b26' WHERE id = 1;
710 UPDATE users SET password = 'e727d1464ae12436e899a726da5b2f11d8381b26' WHERE id = 2;
711 UPDATE users SET password = 'e727d1464ae12436e899a726da5b2f11d8381b26' WHERE id = 3;
713Then use the following command to update the SQLite database:
715 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp03.sql
717B<Note:> We are using SHA-1 hashes here, but many other hashing
718algorithms are supported. See C<Digest> for more information.
721=head2 Enable SHA-1 Hash Passwords in
45d511e0 724Edit C<myapp.conf> and update it to match (the C<password_type> and
d442cc9f 725C<password_hash_type> are new, everything else is the same):
c010ae0d 727 name MyApp
728 <authentication>
729 default_realm dbic
730 <realms>
731 <dbic>
732 <credential>
3533daff 733 # Note this first definition would be the same as setting
734 # __PACKAGE__->config->{authentication}->{realms}->{dbic}
735 # ->{credential} = 'Password' in lib/
3533daff 736 #
737 # Specify that we are going to do password-based auth
c010ae0d 738 class Password
3533daff 739 # This is the name of the field in the users table with the
740 # password stored in it
c010ae0d 741 password_field password
3533daff 742 # Switch to more secure hashed passwords
c010ae0d 743 password_type hashed
3533daff 744 # Use the SHA-1 hashing algorithm
c010ae0d 745 password_hash_type SHA-1
d0496197 746 </credential>
c010ae0d 747 <store>
3533daff 748 # Use DBIC to retrieve username, password & role information
c010ae0d 749 class DBIx::Class
3533daff 750 # This is the model object created by Catalyst::Model::DBIC
d0496197 751 # from your schema (you created 'MyApp::Schema::User' but as
752 # the Catalyst startup debug messages show, it was loaded as
753 # 'MyApp::Model::DB::Users').
3533daff 754 # NOTE: Omit 'MyApp::Model' here just as you would when using
d0496197 755 # '$c->model("DB::Users)'
756 user_class DB::Users
3533daff 757 # This is the name of the field in your 'users' table that
758 # contains the user's name
c010ae0d 759 id_field username
d0496197 760 </store>
761 </dbic>
762 </realms>
763 </authentication>
d442cc9f 764
765=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
767Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
768running) and restart it:
770 $ script/
772You should now be able to go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and
773login as before. When done, click the "Logout" link on the login page
774(or point your browser at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 776
779As discussed in Part 3 of the tutorial, C<flash> allows you to set
780variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it will
781remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
782is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
783authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
784those plugins are enabled, let's go back and improve the "delete
785and redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the
786L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::BasicCRUD> part of the
789First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 790to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
791has changed):
d442cc9f 792
793 =head2 delete
795 Delete a book
797 =cut
799 sub delete : Local {
800 # $id = primary key of book to delete
801 my ($self, $c, $id) = @_;
803 # Search for the book and then delete it
d0496197 804 $c->model('DB::Books')->search({id => $id})->delete_all;
d442cc9f 805
806 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
807 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
3533daff 809 # Redirect the user back to the list page
d442cc9f 810 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/books/list'));
811 }
813Next, open C<root/lib/site/layout> and update the TT code to pull from
814flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
816 <div id="header">[% PROCESS site/header %]</div>
818 <div id="content">
819 <span class="message">[% status_msg || Catalyst.flash.status_msg %]</span>
820 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
821 [% content %]
822 </div>
824 <div id="footer">[% PROCESS site/footer %]</div>
827=head2 Try Out Flash
829Restart the development server and point your browser to
3533daff 830L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
831several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
832"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
833"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 834
835B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
836I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
837exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
838the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
839after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
840L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session|Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
3533daff 843=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
845Although the a use of flash above is certainly an improvement over the
846C<status_msg> we employed in Part 4 of the tutorial, the C<status_msg
847|| Catalyst.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
848alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
849copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your code controller
850and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
851forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
852set the value in C<lib/> by changing the default
853C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
855 __PACKAGE__->config(
856 name => 'MyApp',
857 session => {flash_to_stash => 1}
858 );
45d511e0 860B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 861
45d511e0 862 <session>
863 flash_to_stash 1
864 </session>
3533daff 865
866The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
867since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
868possibly breaking some of your code.
870Then edit C<root/lib/site/layout> and change the C<status_msg> line
871to look like the following:
873 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
875Restart the development server and go to
876L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete another
877of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should still
878maintain the status message across the redirect even though you are no
879longer explicitly accessing C<Catalyst.flash>.
d442cc9f 881
882=head1 AUTHOR
884Kennedy Clark, C<>
886Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The
887most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
d712b826 888L<>.
d442cc9f 889
890Copyright 2006, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License