rollback to use Catalyst qw/@plugins/
[catagits/Catalyst-Manual.git] / lib / Catalyst / Manual / Tutorial / Authentication.pod
d442cc9f 1=head1 NAME
3533daff 3Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Part 5: Authentication
d442cc9f 4
6=head1 OVERVIEW
3533daff 8This is B<Part 5 of 10> for the Catalyst tutorial.
d442cc9f 9
10L<Tutorial Overview|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial>
12=over 4
14=item 1
18=item 2
20L<Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::CatalystBasics>
22=item 3
3533daff 24L<More Catalyst Basics|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::MoreCatalystBasics>
d442cc9f 25
26=item 4
3533daff 28L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::BasicCRUD>
d442cc9f 29
30=item 5
3533daff 32B<Authentication>
d442cc9f 33
34=item 6
3533daff 36L<Authorization|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Authorization>
d442cc9f 37
38=item 7
3533daff 40L<Debugging|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Debugging>
d442cc9f 41
42=item 8
3533daff 44L<Testing|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Testing>
d442cc9f 45
46=item 9
3533daff 48L<Advanced CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::AdvancedCRUD>
d442cc9f 49
3533daff 50=item 10
d442cc9f 51
3533daff 52L<Appendices|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Appendices>
d442cc9f 53
3533daff 54=back
2d0526d1 55
2d0526d1 56
d442cc9f 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
905a3a26 59Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can
60focus on providing authentication (with authorization coming next in
9ad715b3 61Part 6).
d442cc9f 62
63This part of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic,
64cleartext authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.
66You can checkout the source code for this example from the catalyst
67subversion repository as per the instructions in
72This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst
76=head2 Add Users and Roles to the Database
78First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will
79add the role information here although it will not be used until the
9ad715b3 80authorization section, Part 6). Create a new SQL script file by opening
d442cc9f 81C<myapp02.sql> in your editor and insert:
83 --
84 -- Add users and roles tables, along with a many-to-many join table
85 --
86 CREATE TABLE users (
88 username TEXT,
89 password TEXT,
90 email_address TEXT,
91 first_name TEXT,
92 last_name TEXT,
93 active INTEGER
94 );
95 CREATE TABLE roles (
97 role TEXT
98 );
99 CREATE TABLE user_roles (
100 user_id INTEGER,
101 role_id INTEGER,
102 PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
103 );
104 --
105 -- Load up some initial test data
106 --
107 INSERT INTO users VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', '', 'Joe', 'Blow', 1);
108 INSERT INTO users VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', '', 'Jane', 'Doe', 1);
109 INSERT INTO users VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', '', 'No', 'Go', 0);
110 INSERT INTO roles VALUES (1, 'user');
111 INSERT INTO roles VALUES (2, 'admin');
112 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (1, 1);
113 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (1, 2);
114 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (2, 1);
115 INSERT INTO user_roles VALUES (3, 1);
117Then load this into the C<myapp.db> database with the following command:
119 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql
122=head2 Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
3533daff 124Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include
125the new tables added in the previous step, let's use the C<create=static>
126option on the DBIC model helper to do most of the work for us:
d442cc9f 127
d0496197 128 $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema create=static dbi:SQLite:myapp.db
129 $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema
3533daff 130
d442cc9f 131
905a3a26 132Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific result source
133files to the C<lib/MyApp/Schema/MyApp> directory. And, more
134importantly, even if there were changes to the existing result source
135files, those changes would have only been written above the C<# DO NOT
136MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and your hand-editted
3533daff 137enhancements would have been preserved.
d442cc9f 138
d442cc9f 139
905a3a26 140Speaking of "hand-editted enhancements," we should now add
141relationship information to the three new result source files. Edit
142each of these files and add the following information between the C<#
3533daff 143DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!> comment and the closing C<1;>:
d442cc9f 144
d0496197 145C<lib/MyApp/Schema/>:
d442cc9f 146
d442cc9f 147 #
148 # Set relationships:
149 #
905a3a26 150
d442cc9f 151 # has_many():
152 # args:
153 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
154 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
155 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table
d0496197 156 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_role => 'MyApp::Schema::UserRoles', 'user_id');
905a3a26 157
3533daff 158 # many_to_many():
159 # args:
160 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
905a3a26 161 # 2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
162 # 3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
3533daff 163 # You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
164 __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'map_user_role', 'role');
d442cc9f 165
d0496197 167C<lib/MyApp/Schema/>:
d442cc9f 168
d442cc9f 169 #
170 # Set relationships:
171 #
905a3a26 172
d442cc9f 173 # has_many():
174 # args:
175 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
176 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
177 # 3) Column name in *foreign* table
d0496197 178 __PACKAGE__->has_many(map_user_role => 'MyApp::Schema::UserRoles', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 179
d0496197 181C<lib/MyApp/Schema/>:
d442cc9f 182
d442cc9f 183 #
184 # Set relationships:
185 #
905a3a26 186
d442cc9f 187 # belongs_to():
188 # args:
189 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
190 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
191 # 3) Column name in *this* table
d0496197 192 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(user => 'MyApp::Schema::Users', 'user_id');
905a3a26 193
d442cc9f 194 # belongs_to():
195 # args:
196 # 1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
197 # 2) Name of the model class referenced by this relationship
198 # 3) Column name in *this* table
d0496197 199 __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(role => 'MyApp::Schema::Roles', 'role_id');
d442cc9f 200
3533daff 201
905a3a26 202The code for these three sets of updates is obviously very similar to
203the edits we made to the C<Books>, C<Authors>, and C<BookAuthors>
3533daff 204classes created in Part 3.
905a3a26 206Note that we do not need to make any change to the
207C<lib/MyApp/> schema file. It simply tells DBIC to
208load all of the result source files it finds in below the
209C<lib/MyApp/Schema> directory, so it will automatically pick
3533daff 210up our new table information.
d442cc9f 211
213=head2 Sanity-Check Reload of Development Server
905a3a26 215We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want
216to do a quick check to be sure our model loads correctly. Press
217C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still running)
3533daff 218and restart it:
d442cc9f 219
220 $ script/
222Look for the three new model objects in the startup debug output:
224 ...
225 .-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------.
226 | Class | Type |
227 +-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------+
228 | MyApp::Controller::Books | instance |
229 | MyApp::Controller::Root | instance |
d0496197 230 | MyApp::Model::DB | instance |
231 | MyApp::Model::DB::Author | class |
232 | MyApp::Model::DB::Books | class |
233 | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthors | class |
234 | MyApp::Model::DB::Roles | class |
235 | MyApp::Model::DB::Users | class |
236 | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRoles | class |
d442cc9f 237 | MyApp::View::TT | instance |
238 '-------------------------------------------------------------------+----------'
239 ...
905a3a26 241Again, notice that your "result source" classes have been "re-loaded"
3533daff 242by Catalyst under C<MyApp::Model>.
d442cc9f 243
245=head2 Include Authentication and Session Plugins
905a3a26 247Edit C<lib/> and update it as follows (everything below
3533daff 248C<StackTrace> is new):
d442cc9f 249
b411df01 250 use Catalyst qw/
d442cc9f 251 -Debug
252 ConfigLoader
253 Static::Simple
905a3a26 254
d442cc9f 255 StackTrace
905a3a26 256
d442cc9f 257 Authentication
905a3a26 258
d442cc9f 259 Session
260 Session::Store::FastMmap
261 Session::State::Cookie
b411df01 262 /;
d442cc9f 263
905a3a26 264The C<Authentication> plugin supports Authentication while the
265C<Session> plugins are required to maintain state across multiple HTTP
6d0971ad 267
905a3a26 268Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This
269is a change that occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the
270C<Authentication> plugin. You B<do not need> to specify a particular
271Authentication::Store or Authentication::Credential plugin. Instead,
272indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
6d0971ad 273configuration (see below).
905a3a26 275Note that there are several options for
278is generally a good choice if you are on Unix; try
279L<Session::Store::File|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File> if you
280are on Win32) -- consult
281L<Session::Store|Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store> and its subclasses
3533daff 282for additional information and options (for example to use a database-
283backed session store).
d442cc9f 284
286=head2 Configure Authentication
905a3a26 288Although C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config(name =E<gt> 'value');> is still
289supported, newer Catalyst applications tend to place all configuration
290information in C<myapp.conf> and automatically load this information
291into C<MyApp-E<gt>config> using the
292L<ConfigLoader|Catalyst::Plugin::ConfigLoader> plugin.
15e1d0b2 293
905a3a26 294First, as noted in Part 3 of the tutorial, Catalyst has recently
295switched from a default config file format of YAML to
15e1d0b2 296C<Config::General> (an apache-like format). In case you are using
297a version of Catalyst earlier than v5.7014, delete the C<myapp.yml>
298file and simply follow the directions below to create a new
299C<myapp.conf> file.
905a3a26 301Here, we need to load several parameters that tell
303where to locate information in your database. To do this, edit the
c010ae0d 304C<myapp.conf> file and update it to match:
306 name MyApp
307 <authentication>
308 default_realm dbic
309 <realms>
310 <dbic>
311 <credential>
905a3a26 312 # Note: this first definition would be the same as setting
3533daff 313 # __PACKAGE__->config->{authentication}->{realms}->{dbic}
905a3a26 314 # ->{credential} = 'Password' in lib/
3533daff 315 #
316 # Specify that we are going to do password-based auth
c010ae0d 317 class Password
3533daff 318 # This is the name of the field in the users table with the
319 # password stored in it
c010ae0d 320 password_field password
905a3a26 321 # We are using an unencrypted password for now
c010ae0d 322 password_type clear
323 </credential>
324 <store>
3533daff 325 # Use DBIC to retrieve username, password & role information
c010ae0d 326 class DBIx::Class
905a3a26 327 # This is the model object created by Catalyst::Model::DBIC
d0496197 328 # from your schema (you created 'MyApp::Schema::User' but as
905a3a26 329 # the Catalyst startup debug messages show, it was loaded as
d0496197 330 # 'MyApp::Model::DB::Users').
905a3a26 331 # NOTE: Omit 'MyApp::Model' here just as you would when using
d0496197 332 # '$c->model("DB::Users)'
333 user_class DB::Users
905a3a26 334 # This is the name of the field in your 'users' table that
3533daff 335 # contains the user's name
c010ae0d 336 id_field username
337 </store>
338 </dbic>
d0496197 339 </realms>
340 </authentication>
d442cc9f 341
342Inline comments in the code above explain how each field is being used.
c010ae0d 344Note that you can use many other config file formats with catalyst.
345See L<Catalyst::Plugin::ConfigLoader|Catalyst::Plugin::ConfigLoader>
346for details.
d442cc9f 347
348=head2 Add Login and Logout Controllers
350Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:
352 $ script/ controller Login
353 $ script/ controller Logout
d0496197 355B<NOTE:> You could easily use a single controller here. For example,
d442cc9f 356you could have a C<User> controller with both C<login> and C<logout>
357actions. Remember, Catalyst is designed to be very flexible, and leaves
358such matters up to you, the designer and programmer.
905a3a26 360Then open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>, locate the C<sub index
361:Path :Args(0)> method (or C<sub index : Private> if you are using an
362older version of Catalyst) that was automatically inserted by the
363helpers when we created the Login controller above, and delete this
ae492862 364line:
d442cc9f 365
366 $c->response->body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Login in Login.');
368Then update it to match:
370 =head2 index
905a3a26 371
d442cc9f 372 Login logic
905a3a26 373
d442cc9f 374 =cut
905a3a26 375
ae492862 376 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 377 my ($self, $c) = @_;
905a3a26 378
d442cc9f 379 # Get the username and password from form
380 my $username = $c->request->params->{username} || "";
381 my $password = $c->request->params->{password} || "";
905a3a26 382
d442cc9f 383 # If the username and password values were found in form
384 if ($username && $password) {
385 # Attempt to log the user in
905a3a26 386 if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
f632e28b 387 password => $password} )) {
d442cc9f 388 # If successful, then let them use the application
389 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/books/list'));
390 return;
391 } else {
392 # Set an error message
393 $c->stash->{error_msg} = "Bad username or password.";
394 }
395 }
905a3a26 396
d442cc9f 397 # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
398 $c->stash->{template} = 'login.tt2';
399 }
401This controller fetches the C<username> and C<password> values from the
905a3a26 402login form and attempts to authenticate the user. If successful, it
403redirects the user to the book list page. If the login fails, the user
404will stay at the login page and receive an error message. If the
405C<username> and C<password> values are not present in the form, the
f632e28b 406user will be taken to the empty login form.
d442cc9f 407
85d49fb6 408Note that we could have used something like C<sub default :Path>,
409however partly for historical reasons, and partly for code clarity it
410is generally recommended only to use C<default> in
411C<MyApp::Controller::Root>, and then mainly to generate the 404 not
412found page for the application.
ae492862 413
905a3a26 414Instead, we are using C<sub base :Path :Args(0) {...}> here to
415specifically match the URL C</login>. C<Path> actions (aka, "literal
416actions") create URI matches relative to the namespace of the
417controller where they are defined. Although C<Path> supports
418arguments that allow relative and absolute paths to be defined, here
419we use an empty C<Path> definition to match on just the name of the
420controller itself. The method name, C<index>, is arbitrary. We make
ae492862 421the match even more specific with the C<:Args(0)> action modifier --
905a3a26 422this forces the match on I<only> C</login>, not
d442cc9f 423C</login/somethingelse>.
905a3a26 425Next, update the corresponding method in
3533daff 426C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> to match:
d442cc9f 427
428 =head2 index
905a3a26 429
d442cc9f 430 Logout logic
905a3a26 431
d442cc9f 432 =cut
905a3a26 433
ae492862 434 sub index :Path :Args(0) {
d442cc9f 435 my ($self, $c) = @_;
905a3a26 436
d442cc9f 437 # Clear the user's state
438 $c->logout;
905a3a26 439
d442cc9f 440 # Send the user to the starting point
441 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/'));
442 }
905a3a26 444As with the login controller, be sure to delete the
14e5ed66 445C<$c-E<gt>response-E<gt>body('Matched MyApp::Controller::Logout in Logout.');>
d442cc9f 446line of the C<sub index>.
449=head2 Add a Login Form TT Template Page
451Create a login form by opening C<root/src/login.tt2> and inserting:
453 [% META title = 'Login' %]
905a3a26 454
d442cc9f 455 <!-- Login form -->
8a7c5151 456 <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
d442cc9f 457 <table>
458 <tr>
459 <td>Username:</td>
460 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
461 </tr>
462 <tr>
463 <td>Password:</td>
464 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
465 </tr>
466 <tr>
467 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>
468 </tr>
469 </table>
470 </form>
473=head2 Add Valid User Check
475We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication
476mechanism -- a I<global> mechanism that prevents users who have not
477passed authentication from reaching any pages except the login page.
478This is generally done via an C<auto> action/method (prior to Catalyst
479v5.66, this sort of thing would go in C<>, but starting in
480v5.66, the preferred location is C<lib/MyApp/Controller/>).
482Edit the existing C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> class file and insert
483the following method:
485 =head2 auto
905a3a26 486
d442cc9f 487 Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page
905a3a26 488
d442cc9f 489 =cut
905a3a26 490
d442cc9f 491 # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
905a3a26 492 # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
d442cc9f 493 # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
494 sub auto : Private {
495 my ($self, $c) = @_;
905a3a26 496
d442cc9f 497 # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page. This
498 # allows anauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
499 # controller. To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
500 # if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
905a3a26 501 # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
d442cc9f 502 # added above.
503 if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
504 return 1;
505 }
905a3a26 506
d442cc9f 507 # If a user doesn't exist, force login
508 if (!$c->user_exists) {
509 # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
510 $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
511 # Redirect the user to the login page
512 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/login'));
513 # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
514 return 0;
515 }
905a3a26 516
d442cc9f 517 # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
518 return 1;
519 }
3533daff 521
905a3a26 522B<Note:> Catalyst provides a number of different types of actions,
523such as C<Local>, C<Regex>, C<Private> and the new C<Path>. You
524should refer to L<Catalyst::Manual::Intro|Catalyst::Manual::Intro> for
525a more detailed explanation, but the following bullet points provide a
3533daff 526quick introduction:
d442cc9f 527
528=over 4
530=item *
905a3a26 532The majority of application have traditionally used C<Local> actions
533for items that respond to user requests and C<Private> actions for
3533daff 534those that do not directly respond to user input.
d442cc9f 535
536=item *
905a3a26 538Newer Catalyst applications tend to use C<Path> actions and the
3533daff 539C<Args> attribute because of their power and flexibility. You can
540specify the path to match relative to the namespace of the current
541module as an argument to C<Path>. For example C<Path('list')> in
905a3a26 542C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> would match on the URL
543C<http://localhost:3000/books/list> but C<Path('/list')> would
3533daff 544match on C<http://localhost:3000/list>.
546=item *
905a3a26 548Automatic "chaining" of actions by the dispatcher is a powerful
549feature that allows multiple methods to handle a single URL. See
3533daff 550L<Catalyst::DispatchType::Chained|Catalyst::DispatchType::Chained>
551for more information on chained actions.
553=item *
555There are five types of build-in C<Private> actions: C<begin>, C<end>,
d442cc9f 556C<default>, C<index>, and C<auto>.
558=item *
560With C<begin>, C<end>, C<default>, C<index> private actions, only the
561most specific action of each type will be called. For example, if you
905a3a26 562define a C<begin> action in your controller it will I<override> a
d442cc9f 563C<begin> action in your application/root controller -- I<only> the
564action in your controller will be called.
566=item *
905a3a26 568Unlike the other actions where only a single method is called for each
569request, I<every> auto action along the chain of namespaces will be
d442cc9f 570called. Each C<auto> action will be called I<from the application/root
571controller down through the most specific class>.
575By placing the authentication enforcement code inside the C<auto> method
576of C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> (or C<lib/>), it will be
577called for I<every> request that is received by the entire application.
580=head2 Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
582Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that
583changes depending on whether the user has authenticated yet. To do
584this, open C<root/src/login.tt2> in your editor and add the following
585lines to the bottom of the file:
587 <p>
588 [%
905a3a26 589 # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
d442cc9f 590 # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
591 %]
8a7c5151 592 [% IF c.user_exists %]
593 Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
594 You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
d442cc9f 595 [% ELSE %]
596 You need to log in to use this application.
597 [% END %]
598 [%#
599 Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
905a3a26 600 immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between). Although it
601 can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
602 TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"
d442cc9f 603 comments.
604 %]
3533daff 605 </p>
d442cc9f 606
607Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a
608"you are already logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login
609page after they have already authenticated. For users who have not yet
610authenticated, a "You need to log in..." message is displayed (note the
611use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).
614=head2 Try Out Authentication
616Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
617running) and restart it:
619 $ script/
905a3a26 621B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> If you are having issues with authentication on
622Internet Explorer, be sure to check the system clocks on both your
623server and client machines. Internet Explorer is very picky about
25ed8f40 624timestamps for cookies. Note that you can quickly sync an Ubuntu
625system with the following command:
627 sudo ntpdate
d442cc9f 628
629Now trying going to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should
630be redirected to the login page, hitting Shift+Reload if necessary (the
631"You are already logged in" message should I<not> appear -- if it does,
632click the C<logout> button and try again). Note the C<***Root::auto User
633not found...> debug message in the development server output. Enter
634username C<test01> and password C<mypass>, and you should be taken to
635the Book List page.
637Open C<root/src/books/list.tt2> and add the following lines to the
3533daff 638bottom (below the closing </table> tag):
d442cc9f 639
640 <p>
8a7c5151 641 <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
642 <a href="[% c.uri_for('form_create') %]">Create</a>
d442cc9f 643 </p>
905a3a26 645Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links
646at the bottom of the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template
647files without reloading the development server). Click the first link
648to return to the login page. This time you I<should> see the "You are
d442cc9f 649already logged in" message.
651Finally, click the C<You can logout here> link on the C</login> page.
652You should stay at the login page, but the message should change to "You
653need to log in to use this application."
658In this section we increase the security of our system by converting
659from cleartext passwords to SHA-1 password hashes.
661B<Note:> This section is optional. You can skip it and the rest of the
662tutorial will function normally.
664Note that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser
665still transmits the passwords in cleartext to your application. We are
666just avoiding the I<storage> of cleartext passwords in the database by
667using a SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned about cleartext passwords
668between the browser and your application, consider using SSL/TLS, made
669easy with the Catalyst plugin Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL.
672=head2 Get a SHA-1 Hash for the Password
674Catalyst uses the C<Digest> module to support a variety of hashing
675algorithms. Here we will use SHA-1 (SHA = Secure Hash Algorithm).
676First, we should compute the SHA-1 hash for the "mypass" password we are
677using. The following command-line Perl script provides a "quick and
678dirty" way to do this:
680 $ perl -MDigest::SHA -e 'print Digest::SHA::sha1_hex("mypass"), "\n"'
681 e727d1464ae12436e899a726da5b2f11d8381b26
682 $
905a3a26 684B<Note:> If you are following along in Ubuntu, you will need to install
d0496197 685C<Digest::SHA> with the following command to run the example code above:
905a3a26 687 sudo aptitude install libdigest-sha-perl
d0496197 688
d442cc9f 689B<Note:> You should probably modify this code for production use to
690not read the password from the command line. By having the script
691prompt for the cleartext password, it avoids having the password linger
692in forms such as your C<.bash_history> files (assuming you are using
693BASH as your shell). An example of such a script can be found in
694Appendix 3.
697=head2 Switch to SHA-1 Password Hashes in the Database
699Next, we need to change the C<password> column of our C<users> table to
700store this hash value vs. the existing cleartext password. Open
701C<myapp03.sql> in your editor and enter:
703 --
704 -- Convert passwords to SHA-1 hashes
705 --
706 UPDATE users SET password = 'e727d1464ae12436e899a726da5b2f11d8381b26' WHERE id = 1;
707 UPDATE users SET password = 'e727d1464ae12436e899a726da5b2f11d8381b26' WHERE id = 2;
708 UPDATE users SET password = 'e727d1464ae12436e899a726da5b2f11d8381b26' WHERE id = 3;
710Then use the following command to update the SQLite database:
712 $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp03.sql
714B<Note:> We are using SHA-1 hashes here, but many other hashing
715algorithms are supported. See C<Digest> for more information.
718=head2 Enable SHA-1 Hash Passwords in
45d511e0 721Edit C<myapp.conf> and update it to match (the C<password_type> and
d442cc9f 722C<password_hash_type> are new, everything else is the same):
c010ae0d 724 name MyApp
725 <authentication>
726 default_realm dbic
727 <realms>
728 <dbic>
729 <credential>
3533daff 730 # Note this first definition would be the same as setting
731 # __PACKAGE__->config->{authentication}->{realms}->{dbic}
905a3a26 732 # ->{credential} = 'Password' in lib/
3533daff 733 #
734 # Specify that we are going to do password-based auth
c010ae0d 735 class Password
3533daff 736 # This is the name of the field in the users table with the
737 # password stored in it
c010ae0d 738 password_field password
3533daff 739 # Switch to more secure hashed passwords
c010ae0d 740 password_type hashed
3533daff 741 # Use the SHA-1 hashing algorithm
c010ae0d 742 password_hash_type SHA-1
d0496197 743 </credential>
c010ae0d 744 <store>
3533daff 745 # Use DBIC to retrieve username, password & role information
c010ae0d 746 class DBIx::Class
905a3a26 747 # This is the model object created by Catalyst::Model::DBIC
d0496197 748 # from your schema (you created 'MyApp::Schema::User' but as
905a3a26 749 # the Catalyst startup debug messages show, it was loaded as
d0496197 750 # 'MyApp::Model::DB::Users').
905a3a26 751 # NOTE: Omit 'MyApp::Model' here just as you would when using
d0496197 752 # '$c->model("DB::Users)'
753 user_class DB::Users
905a3a26 754 # This is the name of the field in your 'users' table that
3533daff 755 # contains the user's name
c010ae0d 756 id_field username
d0496197 757 </store>
758 </dbic>
759 </realms>
760 </authentication>
d442cc9f 761
762=head2 Try Out the Hashed Passwords
764Press C<Ctrl-C> to kill the previous server instance (if it's still
765running) and restart it:
767 $ script/
769You should now be able to go to L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> and
770login as before. When done, click the "Logout" link on the login page
771(or point your browser at L<http://localhost:3000/logout>).
d442cc9f 773
776As discussed in Part 3 of the tutorial, C<flash> allows you to set
905a3a26 777variables in a way that is very similar to C<stash>, but it will
d442cc9f 778remain set across multiple requests. Once the value is read, it
779is cleared (unless reset). Although C<flash> has nothing to do with
780authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins. Now that
781those plugins are enabled, let's go back and improve the "delete
782and redirect with query parameters" code seen at the end of the
905a3a26 783L<Basic CRUD|Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::BasicCRUD> part of the
d442cc9f 784tutorial.
786First, open C<lib/MyApp/Controller/> and modify C<sub delete>
3533daff 787to match the following (everything after the model search line of code
788has changed):
d442cc9f 789
905a3a26 790 =head2 delete
d442cc9f 792 Delete a book
905a3a26 793
d442cc9f 794 =cut
905a3a26 795
d442cc9f 796 sub delete : Local {
797 # $id = primary key of book to delete
798 my ($self, $c, $id) = @_;
905a3a26 799
d442cc9f 800 # Search for the book and then delete it
d0496197 801 $c->model('DB::Books')->search({id => $id})->delete_all;
905a3a26 802
d442cc9f 803 # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
804 $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";
905a3a26 805
3533daff 806 # Redirect the user back to the list page
d442cc9f 807 $c->response->redirect($c->uri_for('/books/list'));
808 }
905a3a26 810Next, open C<root/lib/site/layout> and update the TT code to pull from
d442cc9f 811flash vs. the C<status_msg> query parameter:
813 <div id="header">[% PROCESS site/header %]</div>
905a3a26 814
d442cc9f 815 <div id="content">
8a7c5151 816 <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
d442cc9f 817 <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
818 [% content %]
819 </div>
905a3a26 820
d442cc9f 821 <div id="footer">[% PROCESS site/footer %]</div>
824=head2 Try Out Flash
905a3a26 826Restart the development server and point your browser to
827L<http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra
828several books. Click the "Return to list" link and delete one of the
829"Test" books you just added. The C<flash> mechanism should retain our
3533daff 830"Book deleted" status message across the redirect.
d442cc9f 831
832B<NOTE:> While C<flash> will save information across multiple requests,
833I<it does get cleared the first time it is read>. In general, this is
834exactly what you want -- the C<flash> message will get displayed on
835the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep showing up"
836after that first time (unless you reset it). Please refer to
837L<Catalyst::Plugin::Session|Catalyst::Plugin::Session> for additional
3533daff 840=head2 Switch To Flash-To-Stash
905a3a26 842Although the a use of flash above is certainly an improvement over the
843C<status_msg> we employed in Part 4 of the tutorial, the C<status_msg
8a7c5151 844|| c.flash.status_msg> statement is a little ugly. A nice
905a3a26 845alternative is to use the C<flash_to_stash> feature that automatically
846copies the content of flash to stash. This makes your code controller
847and template code work regardless of where it was directly access, a
848forward, or a redirect. To enable C<flash_to_stash>, you can either
849set the value in C<lib/> by changing the default
3533daff 850C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> setting to something like:
852 __PACKAGE__->config(
853 name => 'MyApp',
854 session => {flash_to_stash => 1}
855 );
45d511e0 857B<or> add the following to C<myapp.conf>:
3533daff 858
45d511e0 859 <session>
860 flash_to_stash 1
861 </session>
3533daff 862
905a3a26 863The C<__PACKAGE__-E<gt>config> option is probably preferable here
864since it's not something you will want to change at runtime without it
3533daff 865possibly breaking some of your code.
867Then edit C<root/lib/site/layout> and change the C<status_msg> line
868to look like the following:
870 <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
872Restart the development server and go to
905a3a26 873L<http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete another
3533daff 874of the "Test" books you added in the previous step. Flash should still
875maintain the status message across the redirect even though you are no
8a7c5151 876longer explicitly accessing C<c.flash>.
3533daff 877
d442cc9f 878
879=head1 AUTHOR
881Kennedy Clark, C<>
883Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The
884most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at
d712b826 885L<>.
d442cc9f 886
45c7830f 887Copyright 2006-2008, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License
d442cc9f 888(L<>).